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14 Table 4. Comparison of resident airline passengers at Las Vegas McCarran and Washington Dulles International Airports. McCarran International Washington Dulles Passenger Activity Component (LAS) International (IAD) 2007 Enplaned Passengers 46.96 million 24.53 million 2007 O&D Passenger Share 87% 52% 2007 Enplaned O&D Passengers 40.86 million 12.79 million Resident O&D Passenger Share 15% 72% 2007 Resident O&D Enplaned Passengers 6.13 million 9.21 million Hourly (Short-Term) Parking Supply 900 a 1,920 (Spaces) Daily (Long-Term) Parking Supply (Spaces) 11,500 a 21,550 Note: a Estimated because the hourly and long-term parking split for 270 spaces at Terminal 2 was not available. Source: Ricondo & Associates, Inc. and DMR Consulting, based on airport case studies conducted for ACRP Project 10-06. (3, 8) The average duration of a business trip is shorter than a non- automobile, occupies a parking space for more than one day business trip. For example, business travelers often travel to (similar to an airline passenger), but tends to work fewer days a meeting and return home the same day. As such, business per month compared to other airport employees. Consider- travelers, as compared with nonbusiness travelers, typically ation of this employee segment is important in understand- account for a higher proportion of airline trips with shorter ing the turnover in parking spaces used and the resulting durations. effect on constrained parking. Shift workers--The various airport employers who employ shift workers include the airport operator, airlines, rental Airport Employees car companies, airport concessionaires, cargo companies, The number of employees at an airport and their com- TSA, and others. Consideration of this employee segment mute patterns are the primary determinants for sizing the is important in the context of constrained parking because employee parking supply and, therefore, provide insight into work shifts must overlap to service airport functions. There- employee parking constraints. Most medium- and large-hub fore, there typically is a higher demand for parking at shift airports operate on a 24-h per day schedule, 365 days per changes than at other times; however, shifts are not neces- year, and are staffed accordingly. For purposes of this research sarily consistent among airport employers. project, airport employees are defined as employees of the Administrative employees--Various airport employers airport operator, airline tenants, other airport tenants, or other maintain administrative staff at the airport, such as the aviation-related businesses located on airport property. The airport operator, airlines, and other airport tenants. Consid- airport operator's direct influence over employee parking eration of this employee segment is important in the context behavior or access mode choice may extend to only a small of constrained parking because administrative employees percentage of the total airport employee population because may have more flexible work hours than shift workers or may employees of the airport operator typically account for less be provided special parking privileges as an employment than 10% of the total airport employee population. Table 5 benefit. Also, the number and proportion of administrative shows the proportion of employees of the airport operator in employees can influence the degree to which employee park- relation to the total airport employee population for the 15 rep- ing space demand surges during shift changes. resentative airports participating in this research project. The following employee segments have distinct commut- Additional employment characteristics that influence the ing characteristics: demand for parking include full-time and part-time employees, employees with multiple jobs at the airport, the number of Airline flight crews--Work schedules for airline flight crew flight crew personnel requiring parking that reside in an air- members (referred to as "tours of duty") often involve port's catchment area but are based in a different city, events multiple-day trips. The flight crew member with a multiple- that require unscheduled overtime, and airport employment day tour of duty typically commutes to the airport by private locations.

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15 Table 5. Comparison of total airport employees and airport operator's employees at representative airports. Total Airport Airport Operator Airport Operator Employees as a Airport Employees Employees Percent of Total Airport Employees Large Hub Boston Logan International (BOS) 14,000 850 a 6% Chicago O'Hare International (ORD) 50,000 1,500 b 3% McCarran International (LAS) 20,350 1,200 6% Miami International (MIA) 35,000 San Diego International (SAN) 5,500 c 335 6% Seattle-Tacoma International (SEA) 22,000 833 4% Tampa International (TPA) 6,500 625 10% Washington Dulles International (IAD) 18,800 Medium Hub Bob Hope (BUR) 1,902 120 6% Oakland International (OAK) 10,000 Port Columbus International (CMH) 3,500 360 10% Portland International (PDX) 11,000 300 3% San Antonio International (SAT) 440 Small Hub Huntsville International (HSV) 550 105 19% Tulsa International (TUL) 2,000 170 9% Notes: Data unknown or not available. a Total Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport) employees at Boston Logan International Airport were reported as ranging from 800 to 900. b Number of City of Chicago Department of Aviation employees reported for Chicago O'Hare International includes employees at both O'Hare and Chicago Midway International. c Total employees at San Diego International were reported as ranging from 5,000 to 6,000. Source: Ricondo & Associates, Inc., and DMR Consulting, based on airport case studies developed for ACRP Project 10-06. (115)