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18 parking, thereby resulting in a constrained parking condi- resulting in pent-up demand that should be considered tion at that facility, while excess capacity exists in terminal when developing solutions to constrained parking. Simi- area parking facilities. larly, regional roadway congestion may change airline A nonoptimized rate structure can contribute to parking passenger travel behavior such that future regional constraints if the differential in rates between parking improvements may result in changes in airport access and products is too narrow or the parking products are not parking use. priced to effectively allocate and balance demand among Lack of ground access mode alternatives to the private parking products and other airport ground access modes. automobile may result in higher demand for parking facil- For example, parking rates for all parking products may be ities and, thus, a constrained parking environment at the air- low in comparison to alternative ground access modes, port. Alternative access modes may be viable if they are which might result in a high proportion of airline passen- consistent with the following service characteristics: gers choosing to park rather than use alternative modes of Offer service hours and frequencies in alignment with ground access. airline passenger flight schedules or employee work Changes in airline service directly affect public parking schedules, demand. For example, the introduction of low-fare airline Provide geographic coverage for airline passenger ori- service at several airports has been shown to result in gins or employee residences, increased airport parking demand relative to the demand Offer fares that are acceptable in relation to the cost of typically expected from legacy airline service. This increase driving and parking, and results from several factors, including the effect of increasing Present reasonable travel times in comparison to the the potential catchment area of an airport to airline passen- private automobile. gers that typically would not travel by airline or travel at all. This change has resulted in a higher proportion of passen- As discussed in Chapter 1, it is important to note that the gers that drive longer distances and that have a higher cost of alternative modes of access and the time differential for propensity to park at the airport. Also, an increase in the an alternative mode compared with driving and parking at the number of budget-minded airline passengers that can justify airport are valued differently by business and nonbusiness paying for long-term parking when considering the low cost airline passengers. Therefore, policies designed to address of the airline ticket has a tendency to increase parking demand-side constraints will be more likely to achieve the demand. In addition to the effect of low-cost carrier service, desired results if targeted to the market segmentation of the changes in airline schedules have an effect on the peaking airport's O&D airline passengers. patterns at parking facilities throughout the day, which can affect the availability of parking for greeters and well-wish- Effects and Consequences of ers during peak periods. Constrained Airport Parking External policy influences can contribute to changes in parking demand at an airport. For example, local Consequences resulting from constrained airport parking jurisdictions that have enacted legislation to promote are described in the rest of this section. employee trip reductions can affect airport employee park- ing demand. Customer Satisfaction Effects of previous experiences with congestion are a con- sideration for airline passengers deciding on an airport Parking customers who cannot easily find a parking space or access mode. For example, ongoing airport parking con- are consistently diverted to other parking facilities must allow straints may have artificially affected airport mode choice, more lead time to travel to the airport. In many cases, the cus- Causes of Airport Parking Constraints, Non-Airport Policies and Regulations, Portland International Airport The Port of Portland operates Portland International Airport (PDX) under a conditional land-use permit from the City of Portland, Oregon, which, among other things, limits the number of pub- lic parking spaces that can be added at PDX and specifies where the spaces can be provided. The permit also requires the Port to charge airport employees a fee to park at PDX. The most recent permit was issued in 2003. (12)