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19 Causes of Airport Parking Constraints, Nonoptimal Rate Structure, Chicago O'Hare International Airport Prior to December 2007, the rate for the daily parking product at Chicago O'Hare International Airport's domestic terminals was $30 per day, equivalent to the rate for parking at the inter- national terminal's short-term facility, which was intended to accommodate greeters and well- wishers. When daily parking facilities at the domestic terminals reached functional capacity and were closed, some parking customers diverted to the international terminal's short-term facility rather than to the remote economy parking products. These diversions were suspected to be the cause of constrained condi- tions at the international terminal's short-term parking facility. In December 2007, the parking rate at the inter- national terminal's short-term lot was increased to $50 per day to discourage this unintended diversion of parkers. The new rate matched the daily rate for the hourly parking (short-term) product at the domestic ter- minals. Airport staff believe that this rate increase was successful in achieving their goal, and closures of the international terminal short-term lot have been reduced. (2) tomer is unaware of the constraint until arriving at the airport, one-way trip is made from the airport when the airline pas- which can lead to an undesirable effect on travel plans, includ- senger party returns. Conversely, when an airline passenger ing missed flights. Increased travel time and frustration may party is dropped off by private automobile, one two-way make driving and parking at the airport less appealing in com- vehicle trip is made to and from the airport to accommo- parison to other modes of travel, including the use of a pri- date the enplaning trip, and another two-way vehicle trip is vately operated parking facility that competes for airport made to and from the airport to pick up the same party parking customers (where available). Airport operators may upon its return. Similarly, a shift from parking to taxicab or find it difficult to entice parking customers to return to on-air- single-party limousine mode also results in an increase in port parking facilities once those customers have chosen to the total number of trips on the roadway system; how- park off-airport or use alternative airport access modes. Park- ever, the increase will not be twofold given that a portion ing customers may choose to use alternative modes or privately of the taxicabs and limousines carrying an airline passen- operated parking facilities in the future, even during periods ger party to the airport will transport a different airline when parking at the airport is not constrained, which translates passenger party departing the airport. to lost parking revenue for the airport operator. If an airline passenger shifts from parking to an HOV mode, the number of vehicle trips in the region, on local roadways surrounding the airport, and on the airport roadway system Airport Roadway Traffic Congestion decreases. In this case, the effect of constrained parking Airline passengers who would typically choose to park their improves roadway traffic conditions. vehicles may choose another mode to access the airport if they During constrained parking conditions, greeters who are anticipate constrained airport parking. These changes may picking up an arriving passenger and can not find a parking affect airport roadway traffic in the following ways: space may drive to the terminal curbside to pick up the arriv- ing passenger. If the arriving airline passenger is not ready for If an airline passenger is traveling from one parking facility pickup, the driver may be required to circle around the ter- to another while searching for a parking space, that passen- minal area or travel to a cell phone lot (if available) until the ger is adding vehicle traffic to the airport roadway system. airline passenger is ready to be picked up, which increases If an airline passenger shifts from parking to being picked up vehicle circulation on airport roadways. and dropped off by private automobile for future trips, that airline passenger (or airline passenger party) will generate Increased vehicle traffic and associated curbside conges- twice the number of vehicle trips--in the region, on local tion directly translate into increased vehicle emissions, as dis- roadways surrounding the airport, and on the airport road- cussed in the following section. way system--than were generated when the automobile was driven to the airport and parked by the airline passenger. For Increased Vehicle Emissions each airline round trip during which the passenger party parks for the trip duration, a one-way vehicle trip is made to Total vehicle miles traveled (VMT) on the airport and the the airport when the airline passenger party departs, and a resulting emissions increase during constrained parking con-