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20 ditions for the reasons described in the previous section. Lost Revenue Increased air pollutant emissions also occur when a parking customer is forced to circulate within a parking facility while Constrained parking generally results in lost airport rev- searching for an available space. enue. For example, a missed revenue opportunity occurs for When airline passengers shift from parking to pickup and every parking customer that chooses to (1) shift from the pub- drop-off by private automobile, taxicab, or single-party lim- lic parking supply in favor of other modes, (2) downgrade to a ousine, the increased vehicle trips resulting from this mode remote facility at which a lower rate is charged, or (3) move to shift generate more vehicle emissions on the airport and a privately operated off-airport parking facility. within the region than would be the case if these airline pas- sengers parked for the duration of their trips. However, if the Potential Diversion to Other Airports vehicle used in the drop-off and pickup mode generates lower vehicle emissions as the result of cleaner fuel technology than Data from the stated preference survey conducted as part of the vehicle that would have been parked, then the net change this research project indicate that constrained parking is not a in emissions generated should be considered. primary reason for airline passengers choosing one airport For shifts from airline passengers parking for the duration over another in an airport system. The primary reasons airline of their trips to HOV modes, the vehicle emissions generated passengers choose one airport over another in a competing should decrease. In this case, the effect of constrained park- airport system are the availability of direct flights to a desired ing may have a positive effect on vehicle emissions. destination, the price of airline tickets, and flight travel time. Increased Costs Airport Employee Retention Constrained parking conditions often require increased Airport employees are vital to the operation of an airport. management on the part of the airport operator (or its park- One of the challenges airport employers face in recruiting and ing operator) to direct parking customers from a temporarily retaining employees is the availability of viable commute alter- closed facility to an open facility or to actively assist customers natives to the private automobile that accommodate work in finding an available space within a constrained facility. This schedules. This is particularly true for part-time and temporary increased management results in increased labor costs. When workers. Therefore, commute options to the airport must be temporary overflow facilities are opened to accommodate convenient compared to commute options to other employ- excess parking demand, additional labor and operational costs ment centers, such as a downtown area that is well served by will be incurred, including busing costs associated with opera- public transportation. If the employee parking supply is con- tion of remote overflow lots and the costs associated with rev- strained and the alternatives to driving do not accommodate enue collection, if applicable. Transportation will be required work schedules or represent a significant time penalty com- between the terminal area and the overflow facility until the pared to driving, airport employers will have a difficult time driver of the last parked automobile returns from his or her trip. recruiting and retaining employees.