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21 CHAPTER 3 Goals and Objectives for Managing Constrained Airport Parking Environments Managers of airports where parking facilities are constrained requirements, airport use and lease agreements, highest and may implement a range of strategies to manage the shortfall of best use of available land areas, and airport master plans and parking supply at their facilities. The strategies they implement airport layout plans (ALPs). will likely be influenced or determined by the physical, finan- The factors that influence an airport operator's parking cial, and political contexts within which they operate. Thus, no program are discussed in the next section, followed by a dis- "one right" strategy exists to address constrained parking at all cussion of the issues to be considered when developing goals airports. Ultimately, the strategies developed and implemented and objectives for managing constrained airport parking. will depend upon the goals and objectives established by the entity responsible for managing the airport. When clearly Factors That Influence defined, these goals and objectives become the framework the Development of Goals for developing and implementing strategies to address the and Objectives for constrained parking environment. These goals and objectives an Airport Parking System also form the basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the strategies implemented, as discussed in Chapter 8. As discussed previously, a constrained parking environ- The severity of parking constraints is unique from one air- ment at each airport is unique in that the severity of the con- port to the next and is largely dependent upon how airport straint is perceived differently not only from one airport to managers view their parking operations. In some cases, pub- the next, but often from one manager or policymaker to the lic opinion and customer service standards may be the single next within the same organization. Thus, a direct relation- greatest driving force when establishing strategies to address ship exists between how public and employee parking sys- a constrained parking operation. In other cases, the financial tems at an airport are managed and the policymakers (which position of the airport enterprise and priorities in the airport may be external to the airport's management structure) who capital improvement program (CIP) may have an equal or influence decisions regarding how new parking products will greater influence on the strategies developed and implemented be developed. Often, decisions about programs not seem- to address the parking constraint. Outside influences, such as ingly related to parking influence an airport operator's park- mandated airfield improvements or local environmental poli- ing development strategy. For example, a CIP priority, such cies and regulations, also may be significant considerations. as the expansion of a central utility plant, may require capi- Therefore, what may be viewed as an unacceptable constrained tal funding that could otherwise be used for expanding park- parking environment at one airport may be perceived as a pre- ing facilities. ferred alternative at another airport. Because of the uniqueness of each airport's operating and Research conducted during preparation of this Handbook management structure, political environment, and regula- revealed several common themes that influence how goals and tory setting, it is not possible to list all of the factors that could objectives for addressing constrained parking are established influence the goals and objectives established for each airport. at representative airports. These goals and objectives are estab- However, in discussions conducted during the research phase lished based on multiple themes that include, but are not of this project with airport operators who are now manag- limited to, customer service, environmental impacts, on- and ing, or have previously managed, constrained parking opera- off-airport traffic impacts, community relations, airport cap- tions, several recurring influences emerged, as discussed in the ital improvement priorities, parking-derived revenue stream following sections.