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22 Internal Influences · Environmental concerns--The airport operator promotes environmental stewardship. For example, an airport oper- Within an airport operating and management environment, ator may define an objective to reduce emissions generated generally agreed upon guiding principles influence day-to-day as a result of operation of the airport, including vehicle operations at the airport and set the framework for the future emissions generated by airline passenger and employee traf- development of airport facilities. In some cases, customer ser- fic, and thus may promote programs and new technologies vice standards are determined to be so important that facilities designed to reduce emissions generated by ground vehicles are planned and maintained to provide exceptional levels of accessing the airport. service above, potentially, all other considerations. In other · Land use--The lack of available land under the jurisdic- cases, maximizing nonaeronautical revenues, including park- tional control of the airport operator or sponsor and located ing revenue streams, may be a major emphasis in order to within acceptable operational limits of the terminal area reduce a high cost per enplaned passenger ratio for the airlines was noted as a significant influence on the establishment serving the airport. Whatever the situation, senior manage- of an airport operator's parking goals and objectives. The ment, typically in conjunction with some type of oversight lack of available land to support the development or expan- (such as a board of directors, mayor, or state transportation sion of parking facilities may be due to a scarcity of land agency) sets the management philosophy for the airport, or or a determination by current or prior airport manage- what is referred to as the airport's "guiding principles." ment to prioritize the use of available land for other pur- Although external influences are recognized and vary based on poses, such as terminal or airside expansion, rental car the governance structure of the airport (e.g., independent facilities, or hotels. authority, city department, state agency), airport manage- ment's guiding principles, for the most part, set the framework for the goals and objectives for the airport's parking system. External Influences These guiding principles reflect the direction of management Some airports are subject to policies and regulations imposed and consistently influence the day-to-day decision-making by outside governing bodies, or the airport operator is party to process of staff at all levels in the organization. In addition to agreements with outside entities that influence the operation airport management's philosophy, typically some form or and management of the airport parking program. Most, if range of policies, regulations, operating agreements, or con- not all, airports are subject to influences from entities such as straints, whether obvious or subtle, influence the management local economic development advocacy groups or agencies, or of an airport parking system. The following categories were chambers of commerce. In most cases, airport policymakers identified during this research project as the most common work cooperatively with local business groups to promote internal influences affecting how an airport operator manages tourism and improve customer service. However, external and establishes the goals and objectives related to operating the influences can negatively affect the airport operator's ability to airport parking system: address constrained parking environments. Examples of such external influences include the following: · Financial--Limitations on capital or operating funds affect an airport operator's ability to increase parking supply. · Community--The airport operator is involved in mitigat- Given that parking is such an important generator of rev- ing airport-related impacts, which may include traffic or enues at an airport, net revenue generated from public emissions generated within the airport boundary, in sur- parking is applied to fund other airport projects, used to rounding communities, or in the region. Some airport oper- lower airline fees, added to reserve funds, or needed to help ators have entered into formal agreements with governing meet debt service coverage as required in an airport opera- bodies or community groups to enable airport development tor's bond indenture. programs to go forward. In some cases, these agreements · Customer service--A customer service philosophy or polit- can restrict the degree to which parking can be expanded ical sensitivities influence the planning and management of at the airport. an airport parking system. · Environment--The airport may be subject to environmen- · Traffic management and trip generation--The airport tal mitigation commitments at the federal, state, or local operator is involved in efforts to reduce or limit increases in level, that involve, for example, goals to reduce airport trips vehicle trips to and from the airport or to increase the share or VMTs to reduce vehicle emissions. In some case, these of customers using HOVs because of capacity constraints commitments must be met through the use of parking on on-airport roadways or the regional surface transporta- demand management strategies that effectively limit the tion network that serves the airport. amount of parking that can be supplied at the airport.