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23 Examples of External Policies Influencing Parking Programs at Boston Logan, Portland, and Seattle-Tacoma International Airports Boston Logan International Airport (BOS) Parking Freeze--The public and employee parking sup- ply at BOS has been constrained for a number of years, primarily as the result of a regulatory restriction on the parking supply (i.e., a parking freeze) at BOS that became effective in 1975, in accordance with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and federal air quality regulations. The public parking supply at BOS can only be increased by permanently converting employee parking spaces to pub- lic parking spaces; the on-airport employee parking supply can not be increased. (1) City of Portland Conditional Land-Use Permit--The Port of Portland operates under a conditional land-use per- mit from the City of Portland that, among other things, limits the number of public parking spaces that can be added at Portland International Airport (PDX) and specifies where the spaces can be provided. The permit also requires the Port to charge airport employees a fee to park at PDX. The most recent permit was issued in 2003. Until recently, there was a general understanding by the local regulatory agencies (the City of Portland, the Port- land MPO, and the state of Oregon) that parking spaces induce automobile trips, and that limiting parking spaces anywhere (including PDX) will encourage alternate modes of travel. A new airline passenger demand component in the regional travel demand model in use since 2009 has been effective in beginning to change the understand- ing of regulators regarding how airport parking behavior differs from the behavior of parkers visiting other types of activity centers such as an office building. It is expected that this new understanding will be reflected in approval of a new land-use permit in 2010. (16) City of SeaTac Limitation on Off-Airport Parking--Port of Seattle staff consider the privately operated off-airport parking supply an important component of the overall parking supply at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEA) that helps to relieve public parking constraints during overflow conditions. However, the adjacent City of SeaTac has enacted a policy limiting the off-airport parking supply, so an increase in off-airport parking is not likely to be a solution to future parking constraints at SEA. Furthermore, the policy would prevent the Port of Seattle from leasing or purchasing land in the City of SeaTac for temporary parking use when the public parking supply at SEA is constrained. (6) Transportation--The airport operator and its tenants which zoning and local or regional land-use policies affect may be required or encouraged to mitigate transportation decisions related to airport parking. impacts. This requirement or encouragement may be part of a regional transportation planning effort aimed at reduc- Developing Goals and Objectives ing trips generated by all users of an airport or trips gener- ated by specific user groups at an airport. Large employers Goals and objectives for airport parking should be devel- at airports may be subject to employee commute regula- oped within the framework of the overall goals and objectives tions imposed by local governing bodies. These employee for the airport. Priorities should be established that are con- commute regulations may be aimed at increasing the average sistent with the guiding principles of airport policymakers vehicle occupancy rate or reducing vehicle trips. Addition- and the parking development program should be integrated ally, airport operators who seek federal funding assistance into the airport CIP. These goals and objectives will not only through a metropolitan planning organization (MPO) or guide the development of strategies for resolving parking con- similar type of organizational structure can be subject to straints, but will also serve to screen out strategies that are specific requirements in return for funding commitments. inconsistent with broader policy objectives or that do not have Zoning and land-use policies--Airport property may be a reasonable chance of achieving their desired results. Within regulated by local zoning or land-use policies. Adjacent the context of the goals and objectives, airport management communities may have adopted land-use policies that limit will be able to develop monitoring programs, whether financial, the amount of parking to be provided. The governance struc- operational, or other, to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies ture of the airport has a significant effect on the degree to implemented to further policy objectives.