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25 facility to achieve cost recovery, or the efficiencies or net rev- Proportion of parking supply provided away from the termi- enues that investment in new technology may provide. nal (i.e., remote) and the implications regarding customer level of service, including shuttle frequency and walking dis- Financing tance to board/alight parking shuttles, and the total travel time to and from airline terminals; The relationship between financing a capital investment in Parking products and range of parking rates offered; the parking program and the ability to obtain project financ- Identification of customers that will benefit from the intro- ing for other projects in the capital program is an important duction of premium parking products and, if already offered, consideration. Even if the projected financial performance of assessment of whether customers targeted for premium the new parking facility is acceptable to the airport operator, parking products are using and benefiting from them; financing of the project may inhibit the airport operator's Level of information to be provided to customers regard- ability to borrow money for projects that are of higher prior- ing parking availability, and how that information will be ity in the airport CIP. conveyed; Implementation of technology commensurate with cus- Employee Parking tomer service wants and needs; Ways to resolve parking constraints in line with manage- Financial objectives for the provision of employee parking ment's customer service philosophies (guiding principles); should include consideration of the financial objectives of the Safety and cleanliness of the parking facilities; and airport operator. If employee parking is operated on a cost Methods for measuring customer satisfaction. recovery basis, will costs be recovered through parking fees charged to employees using the parking facilities; will tenant employers reimburse the airport operator for its operating Employee Parking costs; or will a large airport employer (such as a hub airline) Customer service considerations for the development of provide parking for its employees? Alternatively, an airport objectives for employee parking include the following: operator may decide to operate employee parking at a loss and cover operating cost with revenues generated by other Convenience in terms of location or walking and travel sources at the airport (e.g., public parking facilities). Ulti- time to the place of employment; mately, the decision of how to cover the cost of providing Safety and cleanliness of facilities; employee parking at an airport will depend on the operating Employee parking fees; agreement with airport tenants and the business model objec- Importance of how the provision of employee parking tives of the airport operator. (amount and level of service at parking facilities) affects employer and employee satisfaction; Customer Service Objectives Availability of viable commute alternatives to driving to The level of customer service the airport operator wishes the airport and parking; Ways in which improvements and promotions of employee to provide to the various groups of airline passengers and employees who are airport parking customers influences how commute alternatives, including carpooling and ride- decisions are made regarding the provision of public and matching (a service intended to facilitate carpooling by employee parking. The level of importance attributed to cus- pairing up commuters from similar origins who are des- tomer service will directly influence how an airport operator tined for similar employment centers, such as an airport), will resolve parking constraints. Level-of-service considera- will facilitate more efficient use of the employee parking tions for the development of objectives pertaining to public supply; and employee parking are summarized in the remainder of Employee parking level-of-service standards; this section. Collective bargaining agreements, if applicable, and respon- sibility to ensure compliance; and Methods for measuring customer satisfaction. Public Parking Customer service considerations for the development of Traffic Management objectives for passengers using public parking include the and Mode-Share Objectives following: In determining traffic management objectives for the park- Proportion or amount of parking supply to be provided in ing program, the effects of the operation and management of the terminal area and the customers that will benefit from it; the program on the volume of airline passenger or employee

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26 trips generated within the boundaries of the airport, on local goals. The motivation for developing separate goals and roadways, and within the region may be considered. Mode- objectives may be related to the desire for more passengers or share objectives incorporate consideration of the relationship employees to use HOV modes, either for environmental rea- between the parking program and the mode-share distribu- sons or to defer the need for parking capacity increases. The tion of airline passengers or employees. It should be noted that desire to defer parking capacity increases could also lead to traffic management and mode-share objectives may only be the adoption and implementation of strategies to encourage applicable at some airports, such as those in urban areas where the use of single-party pickup and drop-off modes if traffic traffic is a concern or those where operational sustainability implications were not a concern. objectives are key considerations for airport policymakers. Considerations include the following: The airline passenger or employee perception of the avail- Traffic Management and Trip Generation ability of transit and other HOV modes compared to their The volume of vehicle traffic generated by the airport and viability for airline passenger and employee travel to and congestion on the regional surface transportation network from the airport (measures of viability include the geo- that serves the airport may affect the airport operator's cap- graphic coverage of the service area, trip schedules, service ital and operating costs, including costs for infrastructure and frequencies, and travel times to accommodate airline pas- programs to promote the use of alternative forms of trans- senger and employee travel needs); portation to and from the airport. More efficient traffic man- An understanding of airline passenger and employee mode- agement results in lower infrastructure and management costs. share distribution, which is integral to the development of Considerations in developing traffic management and trip goals and objectives and the measurement of progress; and generation goals include the following: The level of effort and influence the airport operator is will- ing or able to exert on the provision and operation of alter- Trip generation on the airport roadway system, on local native modes to effect desired changes in mode choice. roads, and on the regional road system--Understanding the relationship between public parking capacity and trips made by single-party access modes with a higher trip gen- Considerations for Airport Parking eration rate (i.e., customers being picked up and dropped and Other Access Modes off by private automobile, taxicab, and single-party limou- When developing and evaluating airport policies and air- sines) and developing an acceptable balance between accom- port management goals and objectives, consideration should modating parking demand and diversion to single-party be given to the relationships between airport public parking, pickup and drop-off modes. The diversion from parking airport employee parking, and other ground access modes. to HOV modes will result in fewer vehicle trips. Trip generation on the airport roadway system--Under- Public Parking. Policy decisions to accommodate airport standing how parking policies, such as the provision of the employee parking or rental car parking and service facilities cell phone lot, or a shortfall of short-term parking spaces on the airport can contribute to constrained public parking influences the volume of recirculating trips on the airport operations when land available for landside facilities is scarce. roadway system. For example, it is common for airport operators to grant some Policies and strategies--Understanding how public park- employees access to public parking facilities in the terminal area ing policies, in conjunction with strategies for other access and, in some cases, employee use of public parking facilities may modes, may influence vehicle trip generation by airline be responsible for displacing airline passengers who wish to passengers. park in the terminal area. It is important for airport operators Employee trip generation--Understanding the relation- to understand the volume of airline passenger parking being ship between employee trip generation and the availability displaced by other users of the public parking supply, such as of other airport access modes. employees. Data--Ensuring the collection of reliable baseline data from which to measure progress. Rental Cars. When determining when and where to ex- pand public parking, airport operators must consider a vari- ety of competing objectives. One very good example is rental Mode-Share Distribution car ready/return areas and quick turnaround facilities for The airport operator may wish to develop goals and objec- rental cars. Similar to public parking, revenues derived from tives related to airline passenger or employee mode-share rental car transactions and land leases can be one of the high- distribution that are separate from traffic and trip generation est nonaeronautical revenue sources available to the airport