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29 Monitor Exits by Facility Personnel overtime hours and days, Overflow shuttle service hours, and Vehicle exits by facility by length of stay can be used to iden- Hours of operation of overflow parking facilities. tify a trend toward constrained parking conditions. These data provide information on changes in the turnover of parking spaces in a facility. Lower than normal turnover during busy Passenger Projections periods, even without a large increase in activity, is one cause Information on future flight bookings or other estimates of parking constraint. In this example, constrained parking of upcoming passenger activity can be used to project parking conditions may be attributed to airline passengers parking for demand and periods when parking may become constrained. longer durations than during unconstrained periods. This information is useful when considered in conjunction with historical information on busy parking periods (as dis- Get Information on Previous cussed in the previous section). Flight booking information Constrained Parking Events can be obtained from the airlines; such information is propri- etary, so it may not always be available to the airport operator. Tracking and monitoring parking data during previous peri- This information is most useful for near-term projections ods of constrained parking, by using data on parking operations given the nature of airline passenger bookings. A comparison staff resources deployed to manage the constrained operation of changes in historical parking data to changes in airline pas- or data from the parking revenue control system, can be use- senger activity for the same time periods enables the analyst to ful in predicting the frequency, nature, and consequences of determine changes that may be related to parking constraints future constrained operations for similar time periods. Data and disregard changes that are related to fluctuations in airline that may be collected and reviewed include the following: passenger activity. This is referred to as normalizing the data. The number of days that overflow parking is required, The duration of each overflow event, Operational Experience The number of automobiles parked in excess of functional and Knowledge capacity by facility and by time of day, Personnel involved in airport public parking management The duration of closures by facility, and operations develop a general understanding of parking pat- The number of days until the majority of automobiles were terns based on experience. This knowledge assists these person- retrieved from overflow parking, nel in anticipating and planning for constrained parking events, The number of automobiles that were directed to privately and it is invaluable when interpreting historical data and pro- operated parking facilities, jecting demand to predict future constrained parking events. Predicting Parking Constraints at Tulsa International Airport The Tulsa Airport Authority reviews overnight counts in the garage adjacent to the terminal area at Tulsa International Airport to predict overflow conditions. When overnight occupancy reaches 75% of capacity, the garage is likely to experience constrained conditions the next day. (15) Predicting Parking Constraints at Bob Hope Airport The Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena Airport Authority and its parking management operator project trends in parking facility use at Bob Hope Airport (BUR) by reviewing future airline bookings. The airlines share proprietary booking information with the authority and the parking operator on a regular basis. Strategies for dealing with constrained parking are based on this information, as well as experience, since passenger numbers do not always equate to parking exits. Depending on the type of event (e.g., holiday, weekday peak), different mixes of curbside traffic and parking exits will result. Parking staff pay attention to travel trends, such as when large conferences are happening in Las Vegas, since BUR is a Las Vegas gateway. (9)

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30 Predicting Parking Constraints at Chicago O'Hare International Airport The City of Chicago Department of Aviation and its parking management operator track several parameters related to historical public parking activity at Chicago O'Hare International Airport (ORD). These parameters, along with future airline bookings (proprietary information from the airlines), have proven useful in predicting future busy periods in which parking demand may approach or exceed the number of parking spaces in service in particular facilities. The historical information tracked includes the number of closures and hours closed by parking facility by month. These data are maintained for several years and presented in both tabular and bar chart formats to facilitate comparison and interpretation of the data. (2) An example of historical data used to track the number of parking facility closures by month and to predict future parking constraints is presented below. The example presented below is based on the format used at ORD, but data are for illustration purposes only. 9 8 Number of Closures 7 Year 1 6 Year 2 5 Year 3 4 Year 4 3 Year 5 2 1 0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Month JA N FEB MA R A PR MA Y JUN JU L AUG SEP OCT NO V DEC TOTAL Year 1 1 3 5 4 6 7 5 0 0 2 3 5 41 Year 2 5 6 6 7 5 6 4 3 2 2 4 5 55 Year 3 6 7 8 6 6 5 4 2 3 3 4 4 58 Year 4 7 8 8 7 7 6 5 3 2 1 2 3 59 Year 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 3 2 0 0 1 2 35 Representative data for illustration purposes only.

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31 Predicting Parking Constraints at Portland International Airport The Port of Portland tracks parking activity at Portland International Airport on a daily basis and projects potential peak parking times by reviewing historical parking data and by comparing the data to proprietary booking information received from the airlines. Port of Portland staff have a sense of the busiest times for parking based on past activity. They develop graphs to project future activity. In 2006 and 2007, if overnight counts in the garage reached 1,700 to 1,800 auto- mobiles, slightly higher than 50% of capacity, it was a good indication the garage would reach capacity by noon the next day. The following chart was developed by the Port of Portland to track the average overnight vehicle count by month, as well as the peak overnight vehicle count for each month, and the noon peak count for each month for all close-in parking. This chart consolidates occupancy information for the garage and the long-term lot, which are in the terminal area and are served by shuttle bus service. (12) Sample Tracking Data--Average and Peak Overnight Occupancy and Peak Noon Occupancy by Month for Terminal Area Parking Facilities at Portland International Airport (17)