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33 include paved parking lots, gravel or grass parking areas, or waiting to pick up arriving passengers. Cell phone lots may other available land suitable for parking. Typically, and espe- also be used to reduce the demand for short-term parking. cially at large airports, overflow parking facilities are located Premium parking products--These parking options remotely from the terminal area and require a dedicated shut- include a range of products and programs that cater to long- tle bus service. The airport operator may or may not charge a term parking customers who prefer close-in terminal area fee for use of an overflow parking facility. parking (such as the business traveler) and who are willing The airport operator may choose to direct all parking cus- to pay a premium for the product. Premium parking prod- tomers to the overflow facility when the permanent facilities ucts that provide a guaranteed terminal area parking space reach capacity, may provide customers with a choice of the can be a reliable solution for certain travelers concerned overflow or permanent parking facilities before the permanent about airport parking constraints. Airports where premium facilities become constrained, or may direct certain customers parking products are offered generally realize improved to the overflow facility based on a travel characteristic, such as parking-derived revenues and enhanced customer service trip duration. for their premium parking customers. Short-term parking--Long-term parking spaces have lower Introduce New Parking Products turnover rates than do parking spaces accommodating short- term parkers. If these long- and short-term parkers are New parking products may be introduced to improve or accommodated in the same facility, the spaces used by long- resolve the constrained parking condition at an airport and to term parkers will "consume" the available spaces such that provide a desired service for (1) all public parking customers, spaces are no longer available for short-term parkers. Seg- (2) customers using specific parking facilities, or (3) a specific mentation of the terminal area parking to provide dedicated group of customers. A new product may be offered using the short-term spaces priced to discourage use by long-term existing parking supply or through the provision of additional parkers can help the airport operator accommodate demand parking. Appropriate new products to address parking con- for short-term spaces, which, in turn, improves curbside straints will vary by airport, but examples include the following: operations and reduces recirculating trips on airport road- ways (especially when cell phone lots are not available). Suc- Valet parking--The provision of valet parking offers cessful implementation of this strategy requires excess parking customers the experience of parking in a con- capacity to accommodate long-term parkers in other park- venient location adjacent to the terminal. Valet-parked ing facilities. automobiles may be stored remotely and then returned to a close-in staging area on the day a parking customer Reallocate Supply among is scheduled to return. This limits the use of space in the Public Parking Categories terminal area dedicated to private automobile parking. Alternatively, vehicles can be stored within the terminal This strategy involves the reallocation of space among exist- area if space is available, which improves operational ing parking products to balance capacity with demand for efficiency for the valet parker since automobiles would individual parking products. Achieving the appropriate bal- not have to be shuttled between the terminal area and a ance between short-term and long-term parking in the termi- remote storage area. nal area is a common problem, because needs vary by day of Cell phone lot--Offering a cell phone lot is a possible solu- the week and time of the year. Sometimes, this problem can tion to address heavy curbside congestion resulting from a be resolved through permanent reallocation of space that high volume of automobiles dwelling at the curbside while improves the balance among products and meets the needs of New Valet Parking Product at San Diego International Airport The San Diego County Regional Airport Authority began offering valet parking to customers at San Diego International Airport (SAN) in February 2008 to reduce demand for self parking in the terminal area. According to authority staff, passengers using terminal area parking at SAN desire immediate terminal access when they arrive at, and depart from, the airport and are not price sen- sitive. The curbside valet parking service improves customer service by increasing the number of parkers who have the convenience of terminal area parking without increasing the supply of terminal area self- parking spaces. (5)