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39 · A reasonable experience with baggage storage during the straints, as described in the previous section of this chapter. trips to and from the airport; and Additionally, several of the strategies discussed in this section · Fares that are reasonable in relation to fares for other modes could also be used from time to time to supplement the long- and that are perceived as reasonable for the service provided. term strategies identified in the previous section. General strategies considered to be short-term solutions Each parking customer will have a different perception of for managing constrained public parking events include the what is reasonable. The airline passenger who is sensitive to time following: concerns will be less likely to switch from private automobile to an HOV mode than the airline passenger who is sensitive to · Provide hands-on management in constrained parking price concerns. An airline passenger's choice to drive and park facilities, at an airport may indicate that the customer is accustomed to a · Adjust parking rates on a temporary basis, door-to-door mode and values the convenience of driving, or · Disseminate public information, does not feel that the combination of price and travel time of · Provide temporary overflow parking, and alternative modes is a reasonable option. This is an important · Direct parking customers to privately operated parking consideration when the increased use of HOV modes is being facilities. evaluated as a strategy to address constrained parking. Provide Hands-On Management Strategies to Respond in Constrained Parking Facilities to Short-Term Constraints To maximize the use of parking facility capacity, parking This category of strategies consists of short-term operational staff may direct parking customers to available spaces or to solutions that are intended to manage constrained parking for another parking facility. Parking customers may be directed the duration of a specific constrained parking event. At some to areas that are typically off limits for parked automobiles, airports, such events may occur a few times per year, such as such as the end of rows if vehicle traffic will not be blocked. holiday periods and school vacations. At other airports, short- This approach is sometimes referred to as "stuffing and term operational strategies may be used several times per stacking." month while the airport operator may be formulating strate- gies to achieve longer-lasting solutions. At airports where Adjust Parking Rates on a Temporary Basis short-term solutions are frequently used to manage parking constraints, it may be as cost-effective in the long-term to Temporary rate changes may be used to balance demand adopt some of the strategies to address ongoing parking con- among facilities. These rate changes may involve the following: Temporary Rate Adjustments at Tampa International Airport When the economy parking facilities at Tampa International Airport become constrained, the Hills- borough County Aviation Authority occasionally uses excess capacity in the short-term or long- term parking facilities, and charges the economy rates. (7) Temporary Rate Adjustments at Oakland International Airport It is rare for all public parking facilities at Oakland International Airport to reach capacity during the same period. When a facility does reach capacity, Port of Oakland staff direct parking customers to parking facilities that have excess capacity and they provide vouchers so that parking customers pay the rates they would have paid at their original parking facility of choice. For example, when the economy lot reaches capacity, parking customers may be redirected to a terminal area parking facility, but they would be charged the economy lot rate. (10)