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45 Financial Considerations. Financial considerations asso- Vehicle Traffic Considerations. Vehicle traffic consid- ciated with promoting, enhancing, or providing HOV services erations associated with the provision of hands-on man- may include the following: agement in constrained parking facilities may include the following: Promotional costs; Net financial contribution related to providing or enhanc- Reduced vehicle circulation within the parking facility ing HOV services; because hands-on management assists in directing parkers Capital costs of roadway, terminal, or curbside improve- to available parking spaces and ments (if applicable); and Changes in vehicle circulation from the constrained facility Lost parking revenues resulting from changes in demand for to other on- and off-airport parking facilities due to hands- airport parking facilities. on management. Vehicle Traffic Considerations. Vehicle traffic consider- Environmental Considerations. Environmental consid- ations related to promoting, enhancing, or providing HOV erations associated with the provision of hands-on manage- services may include reduced traffic on airport roadways from ment in constrained parking facilities may include short-term those airline passengers that shift from single-party access reduction in VMT and emissions resulting from reduced cir- modes, such as a private automobile, to HOV modes. culation and vehicle idling related to parkers searching for a space or being diverted to other parking facilities. Environmental Considerations. Environmental consid- Long-term environmental impacts are not anticipated from erations related to promoting, enhancing, or providing HOV the occasional provision of additional parking management services may include reduced regional traffic congestion and staff during constrained conditions. vehicle emissions based on changes in vehicle trips and VMT by airline passengers accessing the airport using the regional Customer Service Considerations. Customer service ground transportation system. considerations related to the provision of hands-on man- agement in constrained parking facilities may include the Customer Service Considerations. Customer service following: considerations related to promoting, enhancing, or providing HOV services may include the realization that if airline pas- Recognition that time-constrained parking customers are sengers do not perceive the value of the HOV modes, they will less likely to miss their flights with the provision of hands- not use them. HOV users are more likely to become repeat on management than are customers who spend time search- users if their first experience yielded a reliable and acceptable ing for a parking space in a constrained facility or must level of service, as discussed in the description of this strategy find another parking space in an on- or off-airport park- earlier in the chapter. In that case, there is a higher likelihood ing facility and that the airline passenger will choose the HOV access mode on Provision of hands-on management alleviates parking cus- a future trip. tomers' uncertainty of finding a parking space due to a con- strained parking facility. Strategies to Respond to Short-Term Constraints Adjust Parking Rates on a Temporary Basis Provide Hands-On Management in When considering the temporary adjustment of parking the Constrained Parking Facilities rates to balance demand among facilities, the following finan- cial, vehicle traffic, environmental, and customer service issues When considering the provision of hands-on management should be considered. in a constrained parking facility to maximize use of the facil- ity, the following financial, vehicle traffic, environmental, and Financial Considerations. Financial considerations asso- customer service issues should be considered. ciated with the temporary adjustment of parking rates may include the following: Financial Considerations. Financial considerations asso- ciated with the provision of hands-on management in con- Increased revenue from new on-airport parking customers strained parking facilities may include increased payroll related attracted by this strategy and from parking customers who to the deployment of additional staff to assist in directing and may have otherwise diverted to privately operated off- guiding parkers to available facilities. airport parking facilities,

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46 Decreased revenue during a constrained event if parkers Cost of procurement, installation, and maintenance of avail- used a lower-priced product than they would have if the able technology, such as variable message signage on road- promotion or discount were not offered, ways serving the airport, which directs parkers to available Advertising and promotion costs, and parking facilities; Personnel costs if additional staff are used for redirecting Reduced parking management staff costs resulting from customers to other parking facilities with temporary rate implementation of public information strategies to reduce changes. parking demand at constrained facilities during peak peri- ods; and Vehicle Traffic Considerations. Vehicle traffic consider- Potential lost revenues resulting from airline passengers ations related to adjusting parking rates on a temporary basis electing to use an alternative mode of accessing the airport during constrained periods or in advance of projected con- rather than driving to the airport and parking in an alter- strained periods may include the following: nate, but available, airport parking product. Changes in traffic patterns due to the diversion of parkers Vehicle Traffic Considerations. Vehicle traffic consider- to the facility with the temporary rate change compared to ations related to disseminating information on parking con- customer diversion without a temporary rate change, and straints at the airport may include changes in the number of Changes in traffic when parking customers chose to use an vehicle trips generated by airline passengers who would typi- on-airport parking facility because they were attracted to the cally park for the duration of their trips, but may have shifted on-airport parking supply or to a specific parking product to other modes given the constrained parking environment. by the temporary rate change that was advertised in advance. Overall changes in traffic volume are not expected to be sig- nificant in most cases. Environmental Considerations. Environmental consid- erations related to adjusting parking rates on a temporary basis Environmental Considerations. Environmental consid- during constrained periods may include potential changes in erations related to disseminating information on parking vehicle emissions based on changes in vehicle trips and VMT constraints at the airport may include temporary changes in related to parking customers being redirected from a con- regional airport-related vehicle emissions due to changes in strained parking facility to another airport parking facility. vehicle trips and VMT resulting from shifts to alternative Long-term environmental impacts are not anticipated modes of airport access. from a temporary adjustment of parking rates. Long-term environmental impacts are not anticipated from public notification of temporary constrained parking Customer Service Considerations. Customer service conditions. considerations related to the adjustment of parking rates on a temporary basis may include the realization that pricing Customer Service Considerations. Customer service promotions, such as comparable pricing for facilities that are considerations related to the dissemination of public informa- in a better location compared to the constrained facility, gen- tion about a parking constraint may include the realization that erally are received favorably by parking customers. notifying parking customers in advance of a constrained park- ing event is a good customer service strategy that allows park- Disseminate Public Information ing customers to plan their trips to the airport accordingly. When considering the dissemination of public information Provide Temporary Overflow Parking to airline passengers in advance of an anticipated constrained parking event to encourage their consideration of selecting When considering the provision of temporary overflow alternative ground access modes, the following financial, vehi- parking to accommodate demand during a constrained event, cle traffic, environmental, and customer service issues should the following financial, vehicle traffic, environmental, and cus- be considered. tomer service issues should be considered. Financial Considerations. Financial considerations rela- Financial Considerations. Financial considerations rela- ted to implementing a public parking information program ted to the provision of temporary overflow parking facilities may include the following: may include the following: Costs associated with providing and maintaining the infor- Capital costs to develop, maintain, and operate the tempo- mation source, such as the dissemination of public infor- rary facility (this strategy can be implemented for ongoing mation, including advertising and website maintenance; and occasional constrained parking conditions, but because

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47 of high operational costs, it may not be effective in lieu of Long-term environmental impacts are not anticipated from increasing the permanent parking supply); the temporary and occasional diversion of parkers to overflow Shuttle operation costs to serve overflow facilities; parking facilities. Land available to use for overflow parking (airport operatorowned, or cost to lease or purchase if not owned Customer Service Considerations. Customer service by the airport operator); considerations related to the provision of temporary overflow Security and lighting; parking may include the following: Roadway signage and other wayfinding requirements; Comparison of the net revenue per space and per event to Inconvenience to the customer compared to other strate- the net revenue that could be earned from permanent pub- gies being considered, such as the strategy to increase the lic spaces to determine the point at which the addition of permanent parking supply; and permanent capacity, or the introduction of another strategy, Provision of information to the customer in advance of demonstrates a stronger return on investment; the airport trip, which is the best approach if this strategy Determination of whether the airport operator will charge is used. for overflow parking and, if so, potential revenues that could be earned to offset capital and O&M costs for providing the Direct Parking Customers to Privately facility; and Operated Parking Facilities Estimate of the numbers of airport parkers who may choose privately operated off-airport parking facilities (if available) When considering directing parking customers to privately instead of overflow on-airport facilities to project lost poten- operated parking facilities to accommodate demand, the fol- tial revenue. lowing financial, vehicle traffic, environmental, and customer service issues should be considered. Vehicle Traffic Considerations. Considerations related to vehicle traffic generated by the airport as a result of the provi- Financial Considerations. Financial considerations rela- sion of temporary overflow parking may include the following: ted to directing parkers to privately operated off-airport park- ing facilities may include the following: Increased traffic on airport roadways if parkers are redi- rected to overflow parking and increased traffic from tem- Increased personnel costs to direct parking customers to porary shuttle bus operations, privately operated facilities, Reduced number of redirected automobiles if information Potential execution of a revenue sharing agreement with on overflow parking is provided to parkers before they one or more private parking operators, arrive at the constrained parking facility through technol- Potential lost revenue associated with diversion of park- ogy or public information strategies, and ers to privately operated facilities compared to alternate Increased curbside congestion if overflow solutions result strategies that provide the potential to generate net rev- in parkers dropping off and picking up members of the enue, and travel party at the curbside prior to parking or after retriev- Determination of whether diversion to privately operated ing the automobile. facilities during occasional constrained parking conditions is preferable to investing in the provision of overflow park- Environmental Considerations. Environmental consid- ing or implementing other strategies to address occasional erations related to the provision of temporary overflow park- constrained parking conditions. ing may include the following: Vehicle Traffic Considerations. Vehicle traffic consider- Temporary changes in vehicle emissions based on changes ations related to directing parkers to privately operated off- in VMT associated with parking customers being redirected airport parking facilities may include the following: to temporary overflow parking, Temporary changes in vehicle emissions related to opera- Temporary increase in traffic on airport roadways tion of shuttle bus service to a temporary overflow facility, because parkers are redirected to off-airport parking Creation of additional impervious surfaces or storm water facilities, impacts if overflow facilities are developed or expanded on Increased curbside congestion if implementation of strat- unpaved areas, and egy results in parkers dropping off and picking up members Potential FAA review and environmental approval required of the travel party at the curbside prior to parking or after depending on current use of land being considered for over- retrieving the automobile from the off-airport parking flow parking. facility, and

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48 Long-term changes in traffic related to parkers who choose to privately operated parking facilities may include the to use off-airport privately operated parking facilities in following: the future even when public parking at the airport is not constrained. The inconvenience to the customer compared to other strategies; when parking customers are diverted from one Environmental Considerations. Long-term environ- facility to another, some time-constrained airline passen- mental impacts are not anticipated from the temporary diver- gers will miss their flights; and sion of parkers to off-airport parking facilities. Provision of information to the airline passenger in advance Customer Service Considerations. Customer service of the airport trip, which is the best approach if this strategy considerations related to directing parking customers is used.