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7 CHAPTER 1 Background on Airport Parking Operations This chapter provides essential background information according to the airline passenger's schedule (i.e., on demand). on parking operations at commercial service airports in the HOV modes--shared-ride van, other van, bus, subway, light United States. Airport parking in the context of an airport's rail, commuter rail, and Amtrak--serve multiple airline pas- ground access environment is discussed and typical airport senger parties and may operate on a fixed schedule, or the trip parking products commonly offered by airport operators are departure time is set based on the travel needs of all customers described. The customer segments and how the characteristics being served on the trip. Airline passengers using scheduled of an airline passenger's trip influence ground access mode service modes must adjust their departure and arrival times choice, including parking preferences, are also described. for the access and egress trip according to the service schedule. The public parking supply at an airport accommodates the following general types of parkers: Parking as Part of the Airport Ground Access Environment Long-term parkers--For the purposes of this Handbook, A variety of ground transportation modes are available for long-term parkers are defined as those airline passengers airline passengers to travel to and from an airport via the local who park an automobile at an airport for the duration of and regional surface transportation network. Generally speak- their trips, regardless of duration. This term applies to air- ing, fewer modes of access are available to airport employees line passengers whose round-trip flights depart and return traveling to and from work than are available for airline pas- on the same day, or that return after multiple days or weeks. sengers. Typical ground transportation modes for airline pas- In general, long-term parkers consist of two subgroups-- sengers and airport employees are discussed in the rest of the business day-tripper who parks for less than 24 hours this section. and the airline passenger who parks for multiple days, including both the business and nonbusiness airline pas- senger. Even though some long-term parkers depart from, Airline Passengers and return to, the airport on the same day, parking dura- The relationship between the availability of parking and an tions of less than 8 h for this purpose are possible, but rare. airline passenger's use of ground access modes is addressed in Long-term parkers may use any of the parking products this Handbook. Although the range of airport access modes offered at an airport, as described in this chapter. Choices available to airline passengers varies by airport, general simi- of products and facilities are typically based on cost, prox- larities among airports can be noted. Table 1 provides a range imity or travel time to the terminal, the availability of park- of ground access mode options that are typically available to ing, customer service and amenities, and perceived safety. airline passengers. Short-term parkers--For the purposes of this Handbook, An airline passenger party is one that travels together to short-term parkers are defined as any customers in the air- an airport to take the same flight (the same is true upon the port public parking system that are not airline passengers, party's return). The single-party access modes--private auto- and that typically park for less than 6 h. Examples of short- mobile, rental car, taxicab, and limousine--serve one airline term parkers include greeters and well-wishers (i.e., persons passenger party traveling together to or from the airport, pro- picking up or dropping off an airline passenger party), per- vide a door-to-door travel experience for the airline passen- sons that come to the airport for business purposes who are ger party, and are available for travel to or from an airport not taking a flight, those who visit the airport for recreational