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77 CHAPTER 8 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies The data needed and approaches for measuring whether Data Sources the strategies implemented to resolve constrained parking conditions achieved the desired outcome on parking and At a basic level, an airport operator may want to measure ground access travel behavior are described in this chapter. how parking behavior changed after strategies were imple- Evaluating the outcomes of strategies implemented allows mented. Expanding this evaluation to consider the relation- an airport operator to judge whether a strategy or multiple ship between changes in parking behavior and the use of other strategies were successful within the context of the goals ground access modes provides a more holistic view of the and objectives for the parking program. Furthermore, devel- effects of strategy implementation. For example, shifts between ground access modes result in changes in levels of vehicle traf- opment of an understanding of parking and ground access fic on airport and regional roadways, and changes in vehicle travel behavior can provide an airport operator insight to traffic effect levels of mobile source emissions generated. facilitate the future formulation of strategies, as discussed in Shifts between different parking products and from parking Chapters 6 and 7. to other modes also affect parking revenues. Understanding The primary focus of this chapter is on ways to meas- these relationships and how a strategy implemented to influ- ure the effectiveness of strategies implemented to resolve ence parking behavior under constrained parking conditions constraints on an ongoing basis (strategies to respond to may influence behavioral changes beyond the parking system ongoing constraints are discussed in Chapter 5). Short-term itself is relevant to the evaluation of a strategy or multiple strate- strategies (also discussed in Chapter 5), on the other hand, gies. Therefore, an airport operator should consider collecting are operational solutions whose success can often be judged and maintaining data on the use of other ground access modes during the constrained situation and adjusted accordingly, that airline passengers use to access and depart the airport. and data are not typically collected to analyze the effective- To measure changes in parking and ground access activity, ness of such strategies. In some cases, however, such as the data are necessary from periods both before and after a strat- use of temporary overflow parking, an airport operator may egy is implemented. Before-and-after data can be collected in track information on the overflow parking operation, such one of the following two ways: as the number of days it is in use and the number of automo- biles parked. Through an ongoing data collection program or The typical data sources described in this chapter are useful By planning in advance of strategy implementation to col- for understanding airline passenger parking and travel pat- lect the necessary before data, and by collecting data after the terns, and are similarly useful for understanding the changes strategy has been implemented. in parking and travel patterns that have occurred following implementation of the strategies to address constrained park- An ongoing data collection program provides the airport ing. The information in this chapter on measuring the effects operator and others with the flexibility to evaluate the outcomes of parking strategies provides guidance on how the data iden- of strategies that may be implemented within a short timeframe tified in this section can be used independently or in their when there otherwise may not have been sufficient time for entirety to quantify the results of strategies implemented to data collection prior to strategy implementation. However, it reduce parking constraints. should also be recognized that the airport's existing parking