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78 revenue control systems, ongoing survey programs, and other changes in parking volume, changes in parking duration, data sources that are part of the airport operator's ongoing data changes in use between facilities, changes in revenue, and collection program may not collect, calculate, and readily report other metrics. The data should be provided in formats that the data that may be most effective in measuring the success of lend themselves to data manipulation or meaningful review. a strategy. As a result, the potential limitations of these two Data obtained from the parking revenue control system can approaches to data collection should be considered. be analyzed and postprocessed to provide a range of statistics Data should be evaluated, as discussed in the next section of in a variety of reporting formats. The reports can range from this chapter, in consideration of other factors that could influ- very detailed ticket-level information to high-level monthly ence parking and travel patterns at an airport to understand and annual statements of parking transactions and revenues. whether any changes are a direct result of implementing a strat- However, for purposes of assessing constrained parking activ- egy or a result of other factors that may have influenced airline ity, at a minimum, the following basic data should be captured passenger behavior. Collection of information to understand and reported. other influences on parking and travel patterns should be con- sidered. What information is relevant to an analysis depends Vehicle exits--Vehicle exits or parking transactions by on the unique environment and conditions at a specific air- facility provide the airport operator and others with the port. Examples of relevant information include the following: ability to determine overall changes in parking activity and changes by facility. It may be important to review exit data Changes in local or national economic conditions; by hour of the day, day of the week, and month of the year. Introduction of low-cost airline service on airline passenger Parking transaction data may be used to generate bench- activity (e.g., annual enplanements) and parking activity marks, such as transactions per space, revenue per transac- (e.g., transactions, revenue, space demand); and tion, and parking transactions per O&D passenger. Changes in pricing or supply of other ground access modes, Vehicle length-of-stay distribution--A distribution of including privately operated off-airport parking and HOV vehicle exits by length of stay by facility provides an air- modes. port operator with an understanding of potential changes in the duration of facility use following implementation of Typical data sources for measuring changes in parking activ- different strategies, such as parking rate changes, alloca- ity and other modes, as well as how the data are obtained, tion changes, or the introduction of new products. Length- include the following: of-stay data should be collected in increments that are meaningful to the specific airport situation. Generally, it Parking revenue control system, is better to collect the information in smaller increments Supplemental parking data, that later can be aggregated during analysis. The length Airline O&D passenger survey data, of stay may correspond to the rate structure, or another Vehicle activity and vehicle occupancy counts, and increment if the rate structure does not provide enough Enplaned O&D passenger activity. information to understand trip durations. One suggested distribution would be to collect information on stays of 24 h or less in hourly increments, and stays of more than Parking Revenue Control System 24 h in daily increments. If special pricing is in effect dur- The parking revenue control system is the most important ing the first hour, such as providing the first 30 min free data source an airport operator can use for measuring changes of charge, the first hour should be segmented into two in parking activity following the implementation of strategies 30-min increments. to address constrained parking. A variety of information can Parking revenue--Parking revenue by facility by length be collected from a parking revenue control system, depend- of stay, month, and year provides the ability to generate ing on the sophistication of the system and the reports gener- benchmarks, such as revenue per space, revenue per trans- ated. Sometimes data that are easy to capture and retain if action, and parking revenue per O&D passenger. Although programmed into the parking revenue control system in parking revenue will be generated primarily by resident advance can be costly, time-consuming, or even impossible to O&D passengers, this benchmark is somewhat useful in retrieve if requested after system programming is complete. comparing performance between years for similar periods Therefore, it is important for members of an airport opera- and for assessing the implication of parking rate changes. tor's staff that have an interest in parking performance from a A comparison of parking revenues generated by the num- variety of perspectives to collaborate on determining which ber of exits by length of stay is important for understanding data are necessary for developing an understanding of overall patterns that affect revenue.