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OCR for page 79
79 Facility occupancy--A count of vehicles in a facility at a traveling for business and for pleasure. In general, business specific time or times during the day or evening can help travelers are more time-sensitive and less price-sensitive parking staff determine if a facility will become constrained. than nonbusiness travelers, and their business trips are typ- For example, maximum daily parking occupancy and min- ically subsidized by their employers. It can be expected that imum daily (typically overnight) occupancy by facility are a smaller proportion of parkers traveling for business pur- helpful metrics in assessing overall parking demands by poses than nonbusiness travelers will divert from terminal day of the week and seasonally throughout the year. These area parking when parking rates are increased. data also are useful for comparing similar periods before Resident status--Resident status is a determinant of mode and after strategy implementation. Newer parking revenue choice, since residents have a more extensive knowledge of control systems are typically able to provide this informa- specific modes available, and only residents may park a pri- tion, while older ones can not. vate automobile for the duration of a trip. The importance of understanding customer behavior by resident status and trip purpose was described in Chapter 1. Since most of the Supplemental Parking Data long-term parking supply and a large amount of the short- If an airport operator can not collect parking occupancy data term parking supply is used by resident airline passengers, from its parking revenue control system, it is recommended it is important to estimate the number of resident O&D that overnight parking occupancy be collected manually by passengers using the airport. It is equally important to esti- facility. Even when the parking revenue control system provides mate the number of nonresident O&D passengers that gen- occupancy data, the collection of overnight counts, including a erated private vehicle trips by greeters and well-wishers, vehicle license plate inventory, may be useful to validate the data as some of those people use short-term parking. Before- collected from the parking revenue control system (e.g., park- and-after data, including numbers of residents, will pro- ing management audits). Overnight license plate invento- vide information on whether changes in parking activity ries also serve as a backup for estimating length of stay when may have occurred as a result of changes in the proportion customers lose their parking tickets and when no automated of residents and nonresidents. license plate recognition systems are in use. The license plate Access mode--Access mode share provides the analyst inventory data also are useful for helping customers locate their with information on all travel modes used by airline pas- cars when they can not remember where they parked. sengers to access and depart the airport. This information, along with resident and nonresident status and trip pur- pose, allows the analyst to understand mode preferences by Airline O&D Passenger Survey Data resident business, resident nonbusiness, nonresident busi- Airline O&D passenger survey data are important for under- ness, and nonresident nonbusiness travelers. It is valuable standing how airline passenger ground access travel patterns to evaluate this information before and after strategies have may have changed in response to strategies implemented to been implemented to understand how customers may have resolve constrained airport parking. Data on private automo- shifted modes. Looking at overall mode share as well as biles that were parked can be collected from the parking rev- mode share by market segment allows the analyst to under- enue control system; however, data on the use of other modes, stand if overall mode shifts have occurred as a result of such as private automobiles picking up and dropping off air- shifts in the proportion of airline passengers by market seg- line passengers at the curbside, typically are not captured. ment, strategies implemented to influence behavior, or Data obtained from an airline O&D passenger survey pro- potentially for other reasons. The number of passengers vide a wealth of information on airline passenger character- using each mode can be estimated by applying the mode istics and travel behavior, including use of airline passenger share for the time period of the survey to the volume of access modes to and from the airport, travel party size, place O&D passengers for a comparable time period, such as of residence, place of trip origin, and trip purpose. average daily O&D passengers. Data from the O&D survey that are relevant to under- Private automobile disposition--Survey data should standing the demographics of the parking customer, as well capture the proportion of passengers using private auto- as changes following implementation of strategies to resolve mobiles that have been picked up and dropped off by constrained parking, are presented in this section and followed greeters and well-wishers versus those that parked their by a discussion of data collection methodology. private automobiles for the duration of their trips. The pickup and drop-off customers can be further segmented Trip purpose--Trip purpose is an important factor in how into short-term parkers and those who used the curbside airline passengers make mode choices. Trip purpose data only. Long-term parkers can be segmented by parking enable the analyst to determine the proportion of parkers facility used.

OCR for page 79
80 Airline passenger travel party size--Travel party size data Surveying enplaning passengers is more efficient than sur- enable the analyst to estimate the number of single-party veying deplaning passengers because enplaning passengers vehicle trips generated by airline passengers to and from have time in the terminal and in hold rooms prior to board- the airport on a daily basis. For a long-term parker, the ing their flights whereas deplaning O&D passengers do number of vehicle trips generated would be calculated by not. An enplaning passenger survey is typically administered dividing the number of passengers that accessed the airport beyond security. It is often assumed that an airline passen- by the "private automobile parked for the duration of the ger's mode of airport egress is the same as the mode of access, trip" mode by travel party size. For an airline passenger which would almost always be the case for the airline passen- dropped off and picked up by a single-party vehicle, the ger who parks an automobile at the airport before departing number of vehicle trips generated would be calculated by on the airline trip. This simplifying assumption significantly dividing the number of passengers dropped off by private reduces the effort and costs associated with administering air- vehicle by travel party size and then by multiplying the line passenger surveys. resulting number by two to account for the vehicle trips An airport operator may collect O&D survey data period- departing from and returning to the airport that are not ically, such as every 2 to 5 years, to monitor airline passen- transporting airline passengers. It can be assumed that the ger demographics and travel behavior. Airport operators data from the enplaning survey can be doubled to arrive at also may collect such data for a specific purpose, such as a the number of daily trips. This methodology (discussed master plan. If an O&D survey is conducted at regular inter- later in this chapter in the section on measuring the effects vals, it can be used to measure before-and-after behavior of parking strategies) also allows the analyst to estimate the subsequent to implementation of a strategy, with the recog- number of rental car trips, taxicab trips, and single-party nition that other changes may have occurred during the limousine trips. time period between surveys that also may have affected Length of stay--Length of stay information allows the ana- travel behavior. It is important for questions and answer lyst to determine trip durations for different customers by choices to be similar each time the survey is administered so customer segment, mode, private automobile disposition, that the results from survey to survey are comparable. It is and parking facility. Data from the parking revenue control also important to carefully consider the timing of survey system provide length-of-stay data, but do not reveal length implementation, such as collecting data at a "typical" travel of stay by customer segments or by airline passenger travel time, when business and nonbusiness travel is not unusually party size. high or low. Airline O&D Passenger Survey Conducted by an Airport Operator (Los Angeles World Airports) Los Angeles World Airports, the operator of Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), administers an O&D survey of departing airline passengers every 4 to 5 years. The most recent survey was con- ducted in 2006. The sampling occurred during August and October to capture peak and "typical" travel periods. Survey responses were collected from 18,458 O&D airline passengers. (22) Airline O&D Passenger Survey Conducted by an MPO (Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments) The Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, the MPO for the greater Washington, D.C. area, conducted an O&D survey of departing airline passengers at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA), Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD), and Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (BWI) during a 2-week period in October 2007. Approxi- mately 19,100 usable responses were obtained, with 24%, 39%, and 37% of responses, respectively, from airline passengers at DCA, IAD, and BWI. The survey was jointly funded by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Author- ity and the Maryland Aviation Administration. It is the eighth survey that has been conducted since 1981. (8)