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8 Table 1. Generic airport ground access modes. Airline Passenger Parties Served Mode Nature of Service Single Party Private Automobile Pickup and Drop-Off and Use of On Demand Curbside Only Private Automobile Pickup and Drop-Off and Use of On Demand Parking by Greeter or Well-Wisher Private Automobile Parked for Duration of Airline Trip On Demand Rental Car On Demand Taxicab On Demand Limousine On Demand Multiple Parties Shared-Ride Van On Demand, Door-to-Door Service Bus or Van--Transit or Privately Operated Scheduled Service Subway, Light Rail, Commuter Rail, or Amtrak Scheduled Service Source: DMR Consulting and Ricondo & Associates, Inc., November 2009. purposes (e.g., airfield observation), and the occasional Airport operator or private operator--Each parking prod- airport employee who is willing to pay commercial park- uct is noted as being airport operated, meaning that it is ing rates to park close to the terminal rather than in an operated by the airport operator (or a contracted parking employee parking facility. Short-term parkers, including management company on behalf of the airport operator), greeters and well-wishers who park rather than pick up or or privately operated, meaning that a private operator pro- drop-off passengers at the curbside, will most likely park in vides parking in the vicinity of the airport but typically not the facility that offers a short walk to the terminal area, if on airport property. space is available. Facility location relative to terminal building--Parking products can be characterized based on the general loca- tion of each parking facility relative to the terminal(s). For Airport Employees the purposes of this Handbook, parking products are clas- For the purposes of this research project, airport employ- sified as terminal area parking and remote parking. Ter- ees are defined as employees of the airport operator, airline minal area parking consists of parking products that are tenants, other airport tenants, or other aviation-related busi- typically located within walking distance of the terminal nesses located on airport property. Typically, airport employ- building. The range of parking products includes facilities ees commute to the airport via private automobile or public located directly adjacent to the terminal(s) that offer the transportation, if available. Employees use the parking sup- shortest and most convenient walk to the terminal(s), as ply for the duration of their work assignment. Employee well as parking facilities that are located an "intermediate" parking is used in one of the following ways: distance from the terminal building that may be walkable, but that may also be served by a shuttle bus or other means For the duration of an employee work day, which is typi- of transportation (e.g., automated people mover [APM], cally less than 12 h; or moving sidewalks). Remote parking products are located For the duration of airline flight crew members' work assign- at greater distances from the terminal(s), requiring a shut- ment, which may be for multiple days. tle bus or other means of conveyance to transport parkers between the parking facility and the terminal(s). Remote locations can include public parking operated by the air- Parking Products port operator as well as privately operated parking facilities A menu of generic airline passenger and employee parking located off airport property. products that may be offered at an airport is shown in Table 2 Parking customer served--As noted earlier, airport park- and discussed in this section. The selection of products offered, ers typically choose the facility in which they park based on naming conventions used, general characteristics, and clas- considerations such as how long they will need to park at sifications of the parking products vary by airport. The char- the airport, the cost of parking, services offered in each acteristics shown in Table 2 for each general parking product facility, and safety, among others. Short-term parking is type help define the typical range of airport parking prod- typically used by customers who desire the greatest con- ucts offered. venience, while long-term parkers tend to balance conven-