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82 Enplaned O&D Passenger Activity Vehicle traffic volume, Emissions generated, Enplaned O&D passenger activity for the periods before and Mode-share distribution, and after the strategy was implemented, preferably on a monthly Customer service. basis, should be obtained and used to normalize changes in parking activity and changes in the use of other ground access Potential impacts specific to each strategy were described modes. in Chapter 5 in the discussion of considerations. Approaches for measuring the changes in activity by impact category are Measuring Effects presented in the remainder of this chapter. The airport oper- of Parking Strategies ator should consider how changes in each category relate to the goals and objectives for the parking program, and with Using the data sources identified in the previous section, the airport's guiding principles, to determine the acceptabil- this section describes ways to measure changes in parking ity of the strategies implemented. and ground access behavior following the implementation of It can be expected that some strategies may have a more strategies to address constrained public parking. Often an air- dramatic short-term impact as customers are introduced to port operator will adopt more than one strategy to address the change, and a lesser impact as customers become accus- parking constraints, so the resulting changes in behavior will tomed to the change. It is recommended that activity data be be difficult to attribute to an individual strategy; therefore, collected and compared for a minimum of 1 year prior to the it may be sufficient to quantify whether a combination of change and 1 year following the change to understand short- strategies achieved the desired changes. term impacts and how behavior reaches equilibrium over time. The airport environment is complex and, as discussed in By continuing to compare activity beyond the first year after the previous section, parking and ground access activity are the change, the airport operator can monitor the ongoing dependent on many factors. Changes in activity following the effectiveness of the strategy. Similar time periods should be implementation of strategies to address constrained parking selected in the before-and-after comparisons. Increments of may indicate their effectiveness or ineffectiveness when, in real- time that are meaningful for comparison will depend on the ity, other factors also influenced the outcome, thereby temper- constrained parking situation, but monthly, quarterly, and ing the effects of the strategies. If the airport operator wishes annual increments may be useful to evaluate. For example, if to understand the cause and effect of strategies rather than just a reallocation of parking and the introduction of a new park- overall changes in activity, information on other factors that ing product were introduced at an airport in June 2005, it may have influenced the rates of change in activity should be would be prudent to compare monthly parking activity from considered, such as local or national economic conditions, July 2004 through June 2005 to parking activity from July 2005 introduction of low-cost airline service, changes in pricing, or through June 2006, as well as changes in airline passenger activ- supply of other modes, including privately operated parking ity during those periods. Data on changes in parking activity and HOV modes, and other factors. for July 2006 through June 2007, normalized for changes in air- The strategies described in Chapter 5 for addressing ongo- line passenger activity, would provide insight into the ongoing ing parking constraints will have varying levels of effectiveness effectiveness of the strategies. Financial data should be col- in balancing demand with supply when applied at a given air- lected for the same time periods to measure financial impacts. port, depending on the circumstance and how the strategy is For vehicle traffic impacts, less data may be available, but the formulated and applied. The primary goal and measure of the time periods compared should be similar for the before-and- success of a strategy or strategies is the resolution of the park- after periods to ensure valid comparisons. ing constraint. However, it is likely that the strategies will result in other outcomes that affect airport operations and Public Parking Activity that may not be acceptable to the airport operator, or that may be inconsistent with the goals and objectives for the ground The primary goal of strategies to address constrained pub- access program or the airport. In other words, in solving the lic parking is to reduce or resolve the parking constraints. constrained parking problem, another problem may be created. Analysis of parking activity data will reveal whether changes Changes in activity and related impacts that are a logical conse- resulted following the implementation of a particular strategy. quence of implementing strategies to address ongoing parking This analysis is accomplished through a comparison of park- constraints include the following impact categories: ing activity before and after the implementation of strategies for similar periods for the total public parking system and Public parking activity, by facility or product, while paying particular attention to Financial performance, periods that were typically constrained.