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84 used to understand the financial effects of a strategy on a Vehicle Traffic Volume unit basis for total parking activity and by facility. Gross revenue by facility or parking product--Revenue by Airline passenger airport access and egress trips affect the flow of vehicle traffic on the airport roadway system and ter- facility or parking product should be compared to changes minal curbside, the roadway system surrounding the airport, in parking activity and O&D passenger activity to under- and the regional roadway system. A relationship exists between stand the relationship between changes in activity and rev- constrained public parking and airline passenger shifts to enue. For example, in a particular public parking facility, other modes, particularly other single-party modes that offer parking exits may have decreased 2%, and revenue may have the customer a door-to-door experience between the trip ori- increased 4%, while O&D passenger activity increased 1%. gin or destination in the region and the airport. Shifts between These results would be compared to similar changes in other public parking and other modes affect vehicle traffic volumes. public parking facilities, and for the total parking supply, Strategies to resolve constrained public parking could improve to understand the influence of the strategy on financial vehicle traffic flows on the airport and in the region if trip vol- performance and if the financial and activity changes are umes were reduced. Conversely, vehicle traffic would worsen acceptable. If the strategy implemented is a rate change, the if strategies increase trip volumes. data also can be used to develop parking elasticities. Airline passengers shifting from parking for the duration of Gross revenue by facility or parking product by duration-- their trips to being picked up and dropped off by single-party Revenue by duration is useful when determining if a new modes contribute to an increase in trip volumes. Airline pas- parking rate schedule was successful in changing parking sengers shifting from single-party modes to high-occupancy behavior for defined durations. For example, long-term modes, such as buses and shared-ride vans, contribute to a parkers at an airport may be using short-term facilities, decrease in trip volumes. spaces for people who desire to park for less than an hour. Single-party modes that the long-term parker may con- To remedy this, the airport operator may have increased sider for airport access in a constrained parking environment the rates for parking in the facility for more than 6 hours to typically include the following pickup and drop-off options: a significantly higher rate than the daily rate in the long- term parking facility. By analyzing parking revenues by Private automobile, duration, the airport operator can determine if the strat- Taxicab, and egy implemented to discourage long-term parkers using Single-party limousine. the short-term facility has been effective and if the strat- egy has resulted in a change in the revenue streams for the Nonresident airline passengers may consider shifting facility. If applied across all parking facilities, the analysis between pickup and drop-off by private automobile, taxicab, of revenue by facility by duration can be used to under- single-party limousine, and rental car. stand the financial impact of the strategy for all parking Table 27 describes the characteristics of enplaning passen- products. For each length-of-stay category by facility, a gers' airport access trips by mode, including the number of comparison of the contribution of each category to rev- vehicle trips generated to and from the airport for the trip. For enue and to activity allows an understanding of which example, the long-term parker that shifts to being picked up users have the greatest effects on financial performance and dropped off by private automobile for future airline trips and facility use. is generating twice the number of vehicle trips than were gen- Net revenue by facility or parking product--A compari- erated when the vehicle was driven to the airport and parked son of revenues net of capital and operating costs to adopt for the duration of the trip. For the enplaning passenger party the strategies and to manage constrained parking prior to that is being dropped off by private automobile, two one-way and following strategy implementation sheds further light vehicle trips are generated (i.e., the driver drops off the pas- on the revenue analysis discussed above, and allows the air- sengers at the terminal and departs the airport without the air- port operator to evaluate the overall financial effect of the line passengers). Another round trip must be made to pick up strategy compared to changes in parking activity. the passenger party upon its return. The number of vehicle trips generated by a long-term parker that shifts to the taxicab If unacceptable changes in revenue can be isolated to or single-party limousine mode also will increase, because not users exhibiting certain characteristics or to a specific park- all taxicabs and single-party limousines transport passengers ing product, this may provide the information the airport both to and from the airport during the round trip. operator needs to modify the strategy to lessen the revenue Using the logic from Table 27, Table 28 shows the general impacts, or the airport operator may decide to reverse the changes in vehicle traffic volumes due to shifts between modes. strategy and try a different approach to address the parking If trip volumes increase and vehicle traffic becomes con- constraints. gested (or more congested) following the implementation of

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Table 27. Typical vehicle traffic impacts of access modes transporting enplaning passengers to an airport. Travel Airline Passenger Vehicle Occupancy 1 Vehicle Trips Generated Parties Per Enplaning Travel Per Enplaning Curbside Mode Served Trip to Airport Trip from Airport Party Airline Passenger Drop-off? Private Automobile Drop-Off (Curbside Only) Single Travel Party Size 0 2 2 Party Size Yes Private Automobile Drop-off (Short-Term Single Travel Party Size 0 2 2 Party Size Potentially2 Parker) Long-Term Parker (Terminal Area) Single Travel Party Size Not Applicable3 1 1 Party Size Unlikely 3 Long-Term Parker (Remote, On- or Off-Airport) Single Travel Party Size Not Applicable 1 1 Party Size Potentially2, 4 Rental Car Single Travel Party Size Not Applicable 1 1 Party Size Potentially2, 4 6 6 Taxicab Single Travel Party Size 0 or Party Size of 1 or 2 (1 or 2) Party Yes New Party5 Size Single-Party Limousine Single Travel Party Size 0 or Party Size of 1 or 26 (1 or 2)6 Party Yes New Party5 Size Shared-Ride Van Multiple Total Airline 0 or Total Airline (1 or 2)6 Number of (1 or 2)6 Airline Yes Passengers Served Passengers Serve d5 Travel Parties Served Passengers Bus (Transit or Privately Operated) Multiple Total Airline Total Airline 1 Number of Travel 1 Airline Yes Passengers Served Passengers Served Parties Served Passengers Subway or Light Rail to Terminal Multiple Total Airline Total Airline 0 0 No Passengers Served Passengers Served Notes: 1 Excludes vehicle occupants who are not enplaning passengers (e.g., well-wishers). 2 Drivers may drop off some or all of the passenger party members at the curbside before proceeding to parking. 3 Vehicle does not depart from the airport until the enplaning travel party returns from airline travel. At that time, occupancy is equal to travel party size for the deplaning trip. 4 Consider trips associated with shuttle drop-off of passengers at the curbside. Shuttle trips are designed to serve multiple travel parties. 5 Mode may transport new deplaning passengers from the airport. The proportion of trips for taxicabs, limousines, and shared-ride vans that transport airline passengers on both access and egress trips versus those that transport airline passengers on one of the trips (access or egress) should be considered. Empty trips are less likely for shared-ride vans than for taxicabs and single-party limousines because of the business model of shared-ride van operators. 6 Two trips if the vehicle departs the airport without airline passengers and one trip if the vehicle returns to a staging area prior to returning to the curbside to pick up a deplaned passenger for an outbound trip. Source: Ricondo & Associates, Inc., and DMR Consulting, November 2, 2009.

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86 Table 28. Directional changes in vehicle trip generation from mode shifts resulting from constrained airport parking. Current Mode Private Private Automobile Automobile (Pick Up and Drop- (Long-Term Single-Party Shared-Ride Bus, Light Previous Mode Off) Parker) Rental Car Taxicab Limousine Van Rail, Subway Private Automobile Decrease Decrease1 Decrease Neutral or Decrease Decrease (Pickup and Drop- Decrease Off) Private Automobile Increase Increase Increase Decrease Decrease (Long-Term Parker) Rental Car Taxicab Increase Decrease Single-Party Neutral or Increase Decrease Limousine Shared-Ride Van Increase Increase Bus, Light Rail, Increase Increase Subway Notes: Mode shift unlikely to occur as a result of constrained parking or implementation of strategies to address constrained parking. 1 Shift primarily applies to nonresidents. Source: Ricondo & Associates, Inc., and DMR Consulting, November 2009. strategies, airport operations personnel will have a general In analyzing these data, it is important to recognize that feel for the magnitude of the impacts. Some changes may be mode shifts and resulting parking characteristics change more pronounced in the short-term and become less notice- seasonally; therefore, care should be taken to normalize the able after customers become accustomed to the strategies. If data to isolate the reasons for the change. trip volumes decrease and vehicle traffic flow improves, the Number of exits by parking facility--A shift in vehicle airport operator may still wish to understand the reasons for parking exits from one parking facility to another also will the shift. At many airports, the airport operator is account- have vehicle traffic implications. For example, customers able to the surrounding communities for the impacts gener- shifting from terminal area parking to remote parking may ated by airport activity, and information on the changes in result in an increase in the number of parking customers impacts would be useful. dropping off members of their travel party at the terminal Benchmarks that can be compared over similar timeframes curbside before driving to the remote lot. This results in before and after the strategies have been implemented to assess additional vehicle traffic at the terminal curbside. the impacts of the strategies on vehicle traffic include the Private automobile activity on the airport roadway sys- following: tem, at terminal curbsides, and in cell phone lot--An increase in private automobile activity at the terminal curb- Number of total parking exits--A change in total vehicle sides indicates an increase in the pick up and drop-off mode, parking exits without a comparable change in total airline or an increase in drivers dropping off travel party members passengers (after accounting for seasonality) indicates that prior to parking their automobiles for the duration of the passengers have likely shifted to or from other modes, or the airline trips. This analysis should be considered in con- average occupancy per vehicle (party size) has changed. For junction with vehicle exit and length-of-stay distribution example, if the party size has not changed and the number data from the parking revenue control system. of airline passengers has not changed, but total vehicle park- Changes in taxicab and limousine activity--Changes in ing exits have increased, customers have shifted to use of the taxicab and limousine activity provide additional insight parking facilities from curbside pickup and drop-off by into modes to which parking customers may have diverted. private automobile and from other modes. Conversely, if Airline passenger mode choice distribution--A compar- vehicle exits have decreased without changes in party size ison of mode share by the four primary passenger market and passenger numbers, customers have shifted to curbside segments--resident business, resident nonbusiness, non- pickup and drop-off by private automobile or other modes. resident business, and nonresident nonbusiness--will

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87 provide additional insight into mode choice. Mode share mented to address constrained parking. Conversely, if mode for all O&D passengers can be used to estimate access trips shares did not change, it may be because of factors in addi- to and egress trips from the airport. To gain an under- tion to, or other than, strategies implemented to address standing of the nature of the changes in overall mode constrained parking. share, the analyst must review the changes in the propor- The calculation of vehicle trips generated by single-party tion of resident and nonresident airline passengers and modes at an airport is shown in an example presented in business and nonbusiness airline passengers to determine Table 29. if overall changes in mode share were caused by shifts in VXZ = ((( YZ M X ) PX ) TX ) 2 (Equation 1) the proportion of user groups or changes in mode prefer- ence among user groups. where VXZ = Total estimated vehicle trips generated by mode X Vehicle trips for single-party modes can be estimated by for period Z. applying the mode-share data to a count of O&D passengers, YZ = Enplaning O&D passengers for period Z (for exam- such as average daily O&D airline passengers. Trips generated ple, average day, peak day average month, annual). by other modes, such as shared-ride vans and scheduled HOV MX = Mode-share percentage for mode X. modes, can be obtained from data sources maintained by the PX = Average party size for mode X. airport operator, such as the AVI system, trip dispatch logs, TX = Average vehicle trips per enplaning passenger trip. or published schedules. However, the number of scheduled Includes the trip to the airport plus average empty HOV trips is unlikely to change as a result of parking strate- trip rate. For long-term parkers, the empty trip rate gies implemented, unless it was part of the strategy. The num- is 0. For drop-off by private automobile, the average ber of shared-ride vans may change as a result of shifts to or empty trip rate is 1, as all such automobiles depart from the private automobile. from the airport without members of the enplaning Changes in vehicle trips by passengers being picked up and passenger party. For taxicabs and limousines, the dropped off by private automobile, taxicab, and single-party rates will typically be between 0 and 1. Airline passen- limousine will represent a similar change in vehicle trips at the ger survey data, as well as dispatch information and terminal curbside, with the exception of recirculating trips. information about vehicle regulations, will assist the Vehicle trips can be estimated for each of the single-party airport operator in determining the empty trip rate. passenger modes using Equation 1. The data for the calcula- tion often are obtained from O&D passenger surveys. Since Explanation: the time interval between administration of O&D surveys will YZ MX = Estimated enplaning O&D pas- often be 3 or 4 years, any changes in parking and ground access sengers using mode X for time patterns will likely be influenced by multiple factors during the period Z; elapsed time. Therefore, changes in mode share may be caused ((YZ MX) PX) = Estimated number of automo- by factors in addition to, or other than, the strategies imple- biles carrying enplaning O&D Table 29. Example calculation of vehicle trips for single-party passenger modes. Vehicle Trips Total Estimated Mode-Share Average per Enplaning Average Daily Percentage Party Size Passenger Trip Calculation Vehicle Trips Single-Party Mode (X) (M) (P) (T) ((((YZ * MX) PX) * TX) * 2) (V) Private Automobile 32% 2.1a 2.0 (((17,400 * .32) 2.1) * 2) * 2 10,606 (Pick Up and Drop-Off) Private Automobile 19% 1.4b 1.0 (((17,400 * .19) 1.4) * 1) * 2 4,723 (Long-Term Parker) Rental Car 21% 1.8a 1.0 (((17,400 * .21) 1.8) * 1) * 2 4,060 a Taxicab 11% 1.3 1.5 (((17,400 * .11) 1.3) * 1.5) * 2 4,417 Single-Party Limousine 6% 1.6a 1.8 (((17,400 * .06) 1.6) * 1.8) * 2 2,349 Notes: (YZ)--17,400 average annual daily enplaning airline passengers for Year Z. a Average party size for this mode does not include the driver of the vehicle. b Average party size for this mode includes the driver of the vehicle. Source: DMR Consulting, November 2009.