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88 passengers using mode X for time The VMT can be used along with information about pol- period Z; and lutants emitted by vehicles in the airport's catchment area (((YZ MX) PX) TX) = Estimated number of vehicle trips to determine the changes in environmental impacts. A data generated by enplaning O&D source for estimating vehicle emissions is the Emissions and passengers using mode X for time Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS), a model approved for period Z, including empty trips. use by the FAA and EPA for estimating the air quality impacts Multiply the above by 2 to estimate the number of vehicle of airport emissions sources, including ground access vehi- trips generated by enplaning and deplaning O&D passengers, cles. (23) In EDMS, vehicle emissions factors are estimated assuming enplaning and deplaning trip behavior is generally from the latest version of the EPA's mobile source emissions the same. model. VMT is another measure of the effects of airport trips generated by airline passengers. Vehicle miles traveled for Mode-Share Distribution the periods before and after the parking strategies were implemented can be calculated based on the data from O&D The airport operator may be concerned about how strate- surveys on local trip origins and the total trips estimated gies implemented to address constrained parking affect the following the example calculation shown in Table 29 for an mode-share distribution of airline passengers, particularly if enplaning passenger. A private automobile drop-off trip from the use of HOV modes is encouraged. Information from an a point of origin 20 mi from the airport generates 40 VMT in O&D airline passenger survey from before and after the park- the region and a drop-off trip from a point of origin 35 mi ing strategies have been implemented is the best source for from the airport generates 70 VMT. To calculate the change keeping track of airline passenger mode-share distribution, in VMT from shifts in the mode-share distribution following and should be evaluated in total and for the four airline pas- implementation of parking strategies to relieve parking con- senger market segments, as described earlier in the section on straints, a simple assumption would be to apply the average "Vehicle Traffic Volume." distances traveled from the O&D airline passenger survey by mode to the changes in the numbers of private automobiles Customer Service that are parked for the duration of the airline passenger's trip and used for picking up and dropping off passengers, as well The customer service implications of strategies imple- as taxicabs and single-party limousines. For private automo- mented to address constrained parking will be of concern to biles picking up and dropping off passengers, and the other the airport operator. If the primary intent of implementing the on-demand modes, the average number of empty trips must strategies is accomplished (improving or resolving constrained be factored into the calculation (as shown in Equation 1 and parking), it would seem that more customers would be pleased Table 29). or fewer would be displeased. Strategies aimed at resolving Changes in airline passenger activity should be factored into the problem for some users may create inconveniences for the analysis to normalize the results and help ensure that the others. This inconvenience will be evident from changes in results of the strategy are not skewed based on fluctuations in parking activity, increased vehicle traffic, or decreased revenue. the numbers of airline passengers. Changes in the customer service category are more difficult to measure than changes in other categories. One indication of a change that affects customer service is if the airport operator Emissions Generated receives more complaints following the implementation of The change in emissions generated on the airport, in the strategies. At some airports, customer satisfaction surveys vicinity of the airport, and in the region by automobiles trans- are administered on a regular basis. If questions are included porting airline passengers to and from the airport as a result related to the availability of parking, pricing, and other fac- of strategies implemented to address constrained airport park- tors, as well as questions on other access modes, this informa- ing may be a consideration for the airport operator when tion should be compared for similar periods before and after determining the acceptability of a strategy. strategies are implemented.