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91 Adjusted Employee Parking Rates at Tulsa International Airport Approximately 2,000 employees work at Tulsa International Airport, including 170 Tulsa Airport Authority employees. Airport employee parking is provided in two dedicated lots with a combined inventory of 471 spaces. The A Lot has 248 spaces, and the B Lot has 223 spaces. The B Lot was experiencing constraints because of its proximity to TSA offices, and the A Lot had excess capacity. In 2007, the Authority Board instituted differential pricing for the two lots to balance demand between the two facilities. Employees in the B Lot pay $22.50 per month and employees in the A Lot pay $15.00 per month. The strategy has been effective in shifting demand from the B Lot to the A Lot. (15) Offer Alternatives to policies for their own employees. Because employees of the air- the Drive-Alone Commute port operator typically account for a comparatively small share of the total airport employee population, the effectiveness of Successful alternative access modes to the drive-alone com- any policies implemented to encourage the use of other access mute mode will reduce the need for employee parking spaces. modes may be limited. Table 31 shows that for the representa- However, a significant challenge to airport operators who are tive airports participating in ACRP Project 10-06, employees considering ways to reduce single-occupant employee trips is of the airport operator typically account for less than 10% of that they often only have the authority and the ability to set the total employee population at the airport. Table 31. Airport operator employee share of the total airport employee population. Total Airport Airport Operator Airport Operator Share of the Total Airport Employee Population Employees Airport Employee Population Large-Hub Airports Boston Logan International (BOS) 14,000 800900 6% Chicago O'Hare International (ORD) 50,000 1,500 a 3% McCarran International (LAS) 20,350 1,200 6% Miami International (MIA) 35,000 San Diego International (SAN) 5,0006,000 335 6% Seattle-Tacoma International (SEA) 22,000 833 4% Tampa International (TPA) 6,500 625 10% Washington Dulles International (IAD) 18,800 Large-Hub Average 5% Medium-Hub Airports Bob Hope (BUR) 1,900 120 6% Oakland International (OAK) 10,000 Port Columbus International (CMH) 3,500 360 10% Portland International (PDX) 11,000 300 3% San Antonio International (SAT) 440 Medium-Hub Average 5% Small-Hub Airports Huntsville International (HSV) 550 105 19% Tulsa International (TUL) 2,000 170 9% Small-Hub Average 11% Notes: Data not available. a The number of airport operator employees shown for Chicago O'Hare International Airport includes employees at both O'Hare and Midway International Airports. Source: Ricondo & Associates, Inc., and DMR Consulting, based on airport case studies (November 2008 through February 2009). (115)

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92 Transportation Management Association, Massachusetts Port Authority The Massachusetts Port Authority founded a transportation management association at Boston Logan International Airport (BOS) in 1997. The purpose of the TMA is to reduce single-occupant employee commute trips to BOS, reduce the demand for employee parking, and improve commut- ing options for employees using alternative modes of transportation. Employees of participating employers receive discounts on the Logan Express, a network of regional nonstop express buses sponsored by Massport, and on some of the privately operated scheduled HOV services. These employees also receive ride-matching services and information on alternatives to commuting alone. The TMA introduced a commuter cash program to its members in 2007. Member employees who switch from driving alone to carpooling, bicycling, walk- ing, or using public transportation receive $3 per day. Massport provides a 50% subsidy, up to $100 per month, to its employees who commute using the Logan Express or public transportation. (1) Strategies that may be implemented to influence employee to provide information and offer incentives to employees to use of alternative access modes are described in the remainder encourage the use of an alternative access mode to the single- of this section and summarized in Table 32. The strategies may occupant automobile. The TMA may sell and distribute tran- be sponsored by (1) the airport operator for its employees or sit passes, such as at an employee commute store that would for a larger population of airport employees, (2) other airport also provide information on ride-sharing and HOV com- employers for their employees, or (3) a transportation man- mute options. The TMA may maintain a website to provide agement association (TMA). information on the program to its members. Each member employer may pay membership dues to fund the operation of the TMA. TMA operation may include a salary for a trans- Transportation Management Association portation management coordinator who works with member The airport operator or other airport employers may form a employers and their employees. Individual employers may also TMA, which is an association of employers working together have a transportation management coordinator to serve as a Table 32. Strategies to reduce the drive-alone employee commute. Strategy Description Transportation Management Develop an association of employers that provides information and incentives to employees Association on alternatives to the drive-alone commute. Commute Options Outreach Provide information on a website about transportation program options and information packets or presentations to new employees. Carpool Program Support carpooling by offering discounted parking permits or other incentives, preferential parking, or ride-matching services to pair up commuters from similar origins. Vanpool Program Provide vans or other incentives for employees that form vanpools. Public Transit Subsidies Subsidize public transit fares. Offer additional benefits such as free fares for a defined period for those employees who relinquish their parking passes. Enhanced Transit Service Work with transit operator to provide service that better accommodates employee work schedules or provide subsidy or initiate service. Shuttle Service Provide a shuttle service to communities with significant employment populations or from the point served by public transportation to other airport employment locations. This service could supplement public transit during hours when transit service is not available. Discounts on Private HOV Offer discounts on privately operated HOV services. Services Emergency Ride Home Offer a defined number of taxicab or rental car vouchers for employees who use an alternate mode for emergency use or as a contingency for overtime. Compressed Work Week Provide the option of working a compressed work week to eliminate a commute trip. For example, employees may work 80 h over a 2-week period in 8 or 9 days rather than 10 days. Car Sharing Provide space for a car-sharing program and offer car-share incentives (such as a couple of hours of free use per month) to those employees who use alternative travel modes for their commute. Bicycle Racks Provide bicycle racks to promote bicycling as an alternative mode; however, this is not a viable mode in many airport environments. Source: DMR Consulting, based on airport case studies conducted for ACRP Project 10-06. (2428)

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93 Reducing the Single-Occupant Commute at San Diego International Airport San Diego County Regional Airport Authority employees are eligible for a subsidy of half their transit fare. Employees must relinquish their parking passes to receive the subsidy. (5) liaison between its employees and the TMA. Membership may program may be offered to a population of employees that be voluntary, or it may be mandatory through lease agreements extends beyond those directly employed by the sponsor(s) to between the airport operator and its tenants. ensure a level of participation needed for vanpool formation. Employees not directly employed by the sponsor(s) may pay Commute Options Outreach a higher participation fee than those employed directly by the sponsor(s). An airport operator, an individual employer, or a TMA may provide information on a website about transportation Public Transit Subsidies program options and information packets or presentations to new employees. An airport operator, an individual employer, or a TMA may subsidize transit passes for its employees to promote Carpool Program increased use of HOV modes. The employer may also provide information on transit options to its employees or customize An airport operator, an individual employer, or a TMA trip plans. may provide incentives and information about carpooling to airport employees. Carpool program elements may include preferential parking, free or reduced parking fees, and ride- Enhanced Transit Service matching services, as well as information and promotions to An airport operator or a TMA may work with a transit encourage employees to try carpooling. The airport operator operator to improve the schedule of the public transportation may extend the benefits of the carpool program to all airport system to better accommodate employee work schedules. employees. Alternatively, the airport operator or a TMA may provide a transportation service that improves the viability of public Vanpool Program transportation commuting for employees. An airport operator, an individual employer, or a TMA Shuttle Service may provide incentives to employees to form vanpools, including the provision of vans, subsidized fuel, free parking, The airport operator or a TMA may provide a shuttle service preferential parking, and vanpool matching. Regardless of to communities with significant employee populations that are who sponsors the vanpool program, participation in the not served by the public transportation system or that are not Reducing the Single-Occupant Commute at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport The Port of Seattle is subject to the state of Washington commute trip reduction law that was enacted in the 1991. Accordingly, the Port offers an employee commute program for its employ- ees. During 2007 and 2008, the Port branded its employee commute program, increased its promotion of the program, and offered a $30 voucher each month to employees who commuted at least 50% of their work days by any HOV mode, including carpools. The voucher was valid for the purchase of goods and services from a variety of merchants in the region, such as retail stores, car washes, and gas stations. As a result, the number of employees buying transit passes doubled, and approximately 70 park- ing spaces that had been used by employees became available for long-term parking by airline passengers. (6)

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94 Reducing the Single-Occupant Commute at Tampa International Airport The Hillsborough County Aviation Authority is a member of the community initiative that assists employees in locating carpooling alternatives. Scheduled bus service is provided by the Hills- borough Area Regional Transit Authority from Tampa International Airport to the central busi- ness district (with numerous transfer options). Additionally, the authority subsidizes 50% of transit fares for its own employees. (7) Transit Service Enhancements at San Francisco International Airport The City and County of San Francisco Airport Commission subsidizes one bus route serving San Francisco International Airport (SFO), SamTrans 397, to ensure that the airport has 24-h transit ser- vice. The subsidy is based on the rides of customers who board and exit the bus at SFO. The route operates through San Mateo and San Francisco counties and serves downtown San Francisco. It is the only bus route in San Mateo County that operates between 2 A.M. and 5 A.M. The Airport Commis- sion was the catalyst for this route, because SFO is the largest employment center in San Mateo County. (24) served for a portion of the employee work schedule. If public Emergency Ride Home transportation serves only the terminal area, and there are air- port work sites that support a significant number of employees For employees who commute to the airport using an HOV but are not within walking distance of the terminal area, the alternative to the single-occupant automobile, the airport airport operator or TMA may provide a shuttle service between operator or TMA may offer to reimburse the employee for the the terminal area and other employment locations to make cost of a taxicab, public transportation, or a rental car to leave transit a viable option for employees with work sites outside of work in an emergency or if the employee must work late unex- the terminal area. pectedly. The number of times an employee is eligible for an emergency ride home may be limited. Discounts on Private HOV Services Compressed Work Hours The airport operator, TMA, or private HOV operators may offer discounts on privately operated HOV services to airport Airport employers may offer compressed work schedules employees. The discount may be on a per trip basis, or involve for employees to reduce the number of commute trips to the the purchase of a monthly pass or multiple trips to receive the airport. Typical schedules involve working 40 h over 4 days discount. or 80 h over 9 days. Transit Service Enhancements at San Diego International Airport In mid-November 2008, the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority initiated free, nonstop bus service between the Old Town Transit Center and San Diego International Airport (SAN) for employees only. The service was operated for a 6-month pilot period, following which funding was extended for another year, through June 2010. Employees traveling from the north using commuter rail, light rail, and public bus service can now travel directly between the Old Town Tran- sit Center and SAN during select hours in the morning and afternoon that are timed with the commuter rail service. Previously, employees had to travel to a train station farther south and farther from the airport to take a public bus that makes multiple stops between the train station and SAN. (5)