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95 Car Sharing times, such as during the overlap period between shift changes. This information should be collected before and An airport operator, a TMA, or another large employer may after strategy implementation to allow an airport operator maintain, or contract for the provision of, a fleet of automo- to understand whether the number of parked vehicles dur- biles for hire by the hour for employees who have a need to ing comparable time periods has changed as a result of strat- leave the airport occasionally. As an incentive, the employer egy implementation. may provide a certain number of rental hours free of charge Vehicle occupancy counts--The average number of over a unit of time, such as a quarter, for eligible employees that employees per vehicle (i.e., vehicle occupancy) can be deter- normally commute using an alternative to the single-occupant mined through manual counts at the entrance or exit to automobile. employee parking facilities or through counts of employees using shuttle buses serving remote employee parking lots. Bicycle Racks The vehicle occupancy data should be directly correlated An airport operator may provide bicycle racks near airport with vehicle traffic counts collected concurrently with the employment locations to promote the use of bicycles as an occupancy counts. The evaluation of changes in vehicle alternative commute mode to the airport. Bicycling may not occupancy may provide insight into the reasons for changes be a viable commute option at some airports because of safety in parking activity. Employee commute characteristics--A survey of the issues related to the configuration of the airport roadway sys- tem or heavy vehicle traffic. entire airport employee population provides informa- tion on the distribution of employee commuting by time of day and day of week, employee residences within the Evaluating Strategy Effectiveness region, commute mode, vehicle occupancy, demographic Suggested data sources and methods for evaluating the information, employer, job type (i.e., shift worker, admin- effectiveness of strategies adopted, as well as related impacts, istrative worker, flight crew), and other information essen- are described in this section. tial to understanding commute patterns. If an employee commute survey is conducted at regular intervals, it can be used to measure before-and-after behavior subsequent Data Sources to implementation of a strategy, recognizing that other The following data sources are helpful in gaining an under- changes may have occurred during the period between standing of employee commuting activity and in measuring the surveys that also may have affected travel behavior. It effectiveness of strategies. To evaluate the effectiveness of strate- is important for questions and answer choices to be gies, data should be collected from periods both before and after similar each time the survey is administered so that the strategy implementation so that changes in activity can be eval- results from survey to survey can be compared. Individ- uated to determine whether the implemented strategy achieved ual employers may also conduct such a survey to develop the intended result. commute strategies for their own employees, but it will not provide the information necessary for the employer to Employee parking activity--Employee parking activity determine if partnering on strategies with other employ- can be measured using data obtained by an employee park- ers is viable. ing access control system, which may include data pro- Parking permits--A database of parking permits issued by vided by a card reader system allowing access into the the airport operator provides information on the number of facility or by gate counts. The card reader system or gate employees with parking privileges, by location of the park- counts may provide information on the distribution of ing facility, and perhaps by employer, but does not provide vehicles by time of day, and may also calculate occupancy information on how often or when each employee uses the in the parking facility if vehicle entrance and exit data are parking facility. captured. Employee security badges--A database of employee secu- Vehicle traffic counts--Using ATRs in the vicinity of rity badges issued can provide general information on entrances or exits to parking facilities will provide informa- employee residence location by zip code, by employer; how- tion on vehicle activity by time of day if the employee park- ever, these data do not provide information on whether or ing access control information or gate counts are not capable not the employee has a parking permit, or how often or of providing this information. Parking shuttles must be fac- when each employee commutes to the airport. These data tored out of the counts. are highly confidential, but often can be obtained as a distri- Occupancy counts--Counts of the number of vehicles bution of employees by home zip code and employees by parked in the parking facilities can be collected during peak employer, without employee identities.