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96 Measuring Impacts Employee Parking Activity Using the data sources identified in the previous section, The ultimate goal of strategies to address constrained changes in employee parking and commuting behavior follow- employee parking is to reduce or resolve parking constraints. ing the implementation of strategies to address constrained Changes in parking activity are revealed through analysis of parking can be measured. If the airport operator adopts more parking activity data. The analysis is conducted through a com- than one strategy to address employee parking constraints, the parison of parking activity before and after the implementation resulting changes in behavior will be difficult to attribute to an of strategies for similar periods for the employee parking sup- individual strategy; therefore, it may be sufficient to quantify ply, paying particular attention to periods that were typically whether a combination of strategies achieved the desired constrained. changes. Airport employee parking demands and peaking patterns The airport environment is complex and, as discussed in the are typically more uniform on a day-to-day basis than those of previous section, parking and ground access activity is depen- public parking demands, which can change dramatically on a dent on many factors. Changes in activity following the imple- day-to-day and seasonal basis. The airport employee popula- mentation of strategies to address constrained parking may tion typically consists primarily of hourly shift workers, seem to indicate their effectiveness or ineffectiveness when, in management staff, and airline employees who work a relatively reality, other factors also influence the outcome and temper the stable schedule. Although the variable schedules of certain effects of the strategies. If the airport operator wishes to under- employee groups, such as airline crews, can be directly influ- stand cause and effect of strategies rather than just overall enced by changes in airline activity (e.g., O&D passenger activ- changes in activity, information on other factors that may have ity), the effects of variations in aviation-related activity patterns influenced the changes in activity should be considered, such on overall employee demands are typically moderated on a as local or national economic conditions, expansion or reduc- day-to-day basis, resulting in a relatively stable employee park- tion of airport activities that led to changes in employment, ing demand compared with public parking demand. As a changes in pricing or supply of HOV modes, and other factors. result, employee parking demand is not typically influenced by Each of the strategies described earlier in this chapter for changes in airline passenger activity to the extent that public addressing employee parking constraints will have varying lev- parking demand is affected. Therefore, the use of benchmarks els of effectiveness in balancing demand with supply when equating employee parking demand to changes in airline pas- applied at a given airport, depending on the circumstance and senger activity are typically less appropriate than for assessing how the strategy is formulated and applied. The ultimate goal public parking demand. and measure of success of a strategy or strategies is resolution The following benchmarks are useful in evaluating the of the parking constraint. But the strategies will have other out- potential effects of a constrained parking solution; however, comes that affect airport operations and may not be acceptable all should be evaluated in the context of changes in external to the airport operator, or may be inconsistent with goals and influences that could affect employee parking activity, such as objectives for the ground access program or the airport. In the effect of the local economy, changes in tenant employee other words, solving one problem (constrained parking) may schedules, changes in airline operations that could affect create another problem. Changes in activity and related effects employment, or other factors that may influence employee that are logical consequences of implementation of strategies parking behavior beyond the specific strategy or strategies an to address employee parking constraints can occur in the fol- airport operator has implemented. Other factors may include lowing categories: changes in cargo activity, changes in the number and charac- teristics of airlines serving the airport, and other changes in Employee parking activity, airport tenants. Financial performance, Activity by mode, Vehicle exits--A change in total vehicle parking exits, in Vehicle traffic volume, specific facilities or between facilities, indicates that the strat- Vehicle emissions, and egy implemented may have influenced employee choice of Customer service. parking facilities. The change in exits should be normalized by the number of parking permits issued by facility. Approaches for measuring the changes in activity or effects Parking permits--A change in parking permits per badged by category are presented in the rest of this section. The employee may provide an indication of shifts to other modes airport operator should consider how changes in each cate- following implementation of a strategy. If the number of gory relate to the goals and objectives for the employee park- parking permits issued per facility has changed, a compari- ing program to determine the acceptability of the strategies son of the rate of change in permits to the rate of change in implemented. exits and occupancies will help the airport operator under-

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97 stand the effectiveness of the strategy, with the understand- Trip volumes are measured using data from traffic coun- ing that airline flight crews will generate fewer exits per badge ters or entry or exit data from the employee parking access given their work schedules. control system, because each entry or exit represents one Vehicle length-of-stay distribution--If available, these vehicle trip. data can provide insight into shift lengths and the propor- Trips generated by employees using private automobiles tion of activity generated by flight crews and related changes may also be estimated using data from the employee commute after a strategy has been adopted. survey. The employee commute survey will provide employee Facility occupancy--The change in occupancy levels dur- mode-share distribution data and numbers of employees per ing constrained periods before and after implementation of vehicle. These data can be used to estimate the number of vehi- the strategy is the ultimate measure of the effectiveness of cle trips generated by employees commuting by private auto- the strategy. mobile. Vanpool trips can be added to the calculation using Vehicles by time of day--An analysis of the number of data maintained by the airport operator, the TMA, or individ- vehicles entering or exiting an employee parking facility ual employers. by time of day before and after strategy implementation will provide further information on the specific changes Vehicle Emissions that occurred. For example, increased use of HOV modes may have resulted in a decrease in parking activity dur- The change in emissions generated by airport employee ing the work shifts when the HOV mode was available as commute vehicles on the airport roadway system, in the vicin- an alternative access mode. ity of the airport, and in the region as a result of strategies adopted to address constrained parking may be a consideration for the airport operator. Financial Performance VMT can be used along with information about pollutants The employee parking operation may be operating at a emitted by vehicles in the airport catchment area to determine financial loss to the airport operator. A comparison of finan- the changes in environmental impacts. cial performance before and after strategy implementation will A data source for estimating vehicle emissions is EDMS, a be important for monitoring changes in financial performance model approved for use by the FAA and EPA for estimating the if gross revenue, operating costs, or capital costs have changed. air quality impacts of airport emissions sources, including ground access vehicles. (23) In EDMS, vehicle emissions fac- tors are estimated from the latest version of the EPA's mobile Activity by Mode source emissions model. The airport operator may be concerned about how strate- gies adopted to address constrained employee parking affect Customer Service the mode-share distribution of employees, particularly if the use of HOV modes is encouraged. Information from an The customer service implications of strategies adopted to employee commute survey conducted before and after parking address constrained employee parking will be of concern to strategies were adopted is the best source for keeping track of the airport operator. Employees and their employers may employee mode-share distribution. be affected by different strategies. Strategies intended to resolve problems for some users may create inconveniences for others. Changes in customer service are more difficult Vehicle Traffic Volume to measure than changes in other categories. One indication Employee access and egress trips affect the flow of vehicle of changes in customer service is if the airport operator traffic on the airport and regional roadway systems. When receives an increased number of complaints following the employee commute choices shift among the single-occupant implementation of strategies. The airport operator could private automobile, carpooling, vanpooling, and HOV modes, administer a customer satisfaction survey before and after it affects vehicle traffic volumes. Strategies for the resolution of implementation of strategies to measure changes in customer constrained employee parking could improve vehicle traffic on satisfaction. It is suggested that the survey include questions the airport roadways and in the region if the number of vehi- pertaining to the availability of parking, location, pricing, cle trips decreased. Conversely, vehicle traffic would worsen if service characteristics of the shuttle service, and questions on strategies increase trip volumes. other access modes.