Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page R1
ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 34 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Handbook to Assess the Impacts of Constrained Parking at Airports
OCR for page R2
ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (re- Governments, Arlington tired) VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg MEMBERS Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson James Crites Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, DallasFort Worth International Airport Norfolk, VA Richard de Neufville William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Massachusetts Institute of Technology Kevin C. Dolliole Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Unison Consulting Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, John K. Duval Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Austin Commercial, LP Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Kitty Freidheim Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Freidheim Consulting Steve Grossman Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Jacksonville Aviation Authority Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Tom Jensen Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City National Safe Skies Alliance Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Catherine M. Lang Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Federal Aviation Administration Gina Marie Lindsey Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Los Angeles World Airports Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Carolyn Motz Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Hagerstown Regional Airport Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Richard Tucker Authority, Atlanta, GA Huntsville International Airport David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Sabrina Johnson Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Richard Marchi Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI Airports Council International--North America C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Laura McKee Air Transport Association of America EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport Executives Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Robert E. Skinner, Jr. George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Transportation Research Board University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC SECRETARY Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Christopher W. Jenks Interior, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2010. *Membership as of August 2010.
OCR for page R3
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 34 Handbook to Assess the Impacts of Constrained Parking at Airports RICONDO & ASSOCIATES, INC. Chicago, IL DMR CONSULTING Pasadena, CA RESOURCE SYSTEMS GROUP, INC. White River Junction, VT Subscriber Categories Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org
OCR for page R4
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 34 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 10-06 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-15496-3 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2010933567 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most © 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT INFORMATION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. they are considered essential to the object of the report. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America
OCR for page R5
OCR for page R6
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 34 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Marci A. Greenberger, Senior Program Officer Tiana M. Barnes, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor Scott Hitchcock, Editor ACRP PROJECT 10-06 PANEL Field of Operations Ronald Siecke, HNTB Corporation, Santa Ana, CA (Chair) Elwin D. Jones, Little Rock National Airport, Little Rock, AR Deborah Klein, City of Phoenix Aviation Department, Phoenix, AZ Eric N. Schreffler, ESTC, San Diego, CA Kurt M. Schwager, Enterprise Rent-A-Car, St. Louis, MO Joan C. Zatopek, Port of Oakland, Oakland, CA M. Ashraf Jan, AICP, FAA Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 10-06 by the Ricondo & Associates, Inc., team. Ricondo & Associates, Inc., served as the prime contractor, and the team includes two subcon- tractors, DMR Consulting and Resource Systems Group, Inc. James T. Jarvis, senior vice president of Ricondo & Associates, Inc., served as the principal investigator, and Diane M. Ricard, principal of DMR Consulting, served as the associate principal investigator. The other authors and those providing research and technical support are Allen Hoffman, vice president at Ricondo & Associates, Inc.; Lisa M. Reznar, managing consultant at Ricondo & Associates, Inc.; Thomas J. Adler, president of Resource Systems Group, Inc.; Elizabeth R. Greene, senior associate at Resource Systems Group, Inc.; and Taras M. Sanow, senior consultant at Ricondo & Associates, Inc. The work was conducted under the general direction of Mr. Jarvis and Ms. Ricard. The research team would also like to thank the staff members of those airports that participated in this research: Bob Hope Airport, Boston Logan International Airport, Chicago O'Hare International Airport, Huntsville International Airport, McCarran International Airport, Miami International Airport, Oak- land International Airport, Port Columbus International Airport, Portland International Airport, San Anto- nio International Airport, San Diego International Airport, Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, Tampa International Airport, Tulsa International Airport, and Washington Dulles International Airport.
OCR for page R7
FOREWORD By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 34: Handbook to Assess the Impacts of Constrained Parking at Airports discusses the different types of parking constraints that airports experience, provides tools to assess the impacts of the constraints and strategies to deal with them, and provides a pre- dictive modeling tool (included herein as CRP-CD-80: Parking Forecast Model and Instruc- tions for Use: Supplemental Materials for ACRP Report 34). The modeling tool will assist in determining the effects of implementing various strategies. The report considers two types of customers when addressing parking strategy: (1) the flying public and the mode of trans- portation in getting to/from the airport and (2) employees. Financial, traffic and conges- tion, emissions, and customer service impacts will vary by strategy as well as by circum- stance at an individual airport and the customer base served at that airport. The handbook and modeling tool will be useful to airport executives, planners, CFOs, and metropolitan planning organizations in determining solutions to parking constraints. In addition, airport executives can read the Executive Summary (available on our website) for a brief overview of the handbook. Parking accounts for a significant portion of non-airline airport revenues. It is not just the public who need parking options, but airport employees require a significant number of spaces, often at fees and rates below market value; however, accommodating airport employees is vital to airport operations and airport tenants. Airports can also have parking constraints due to policy decisions. For example, decisions to reduce the number of single- occupancy trips may have an effect on airport parking that needs to be examined. Airports need to better understand how to assess and evaluate how strategies to deal with parking constraints or to alter demand will impact their financial plans, vehicle traffic and conges- tion, and emissions. Under ACRP Project 10-06, Ricondo and Associates, Inc., in conjunction with DMR Consulting and Resources Systems Group, Inc., developed ACRP Report 34: Handbook to Assess the Impacts of Constrained Parking at Airports by conducting case studies of airports that have experienced constrained parking conditions and by evaluating the cause and effect of the various factors that influence demand. The researchers also conducted passenger sur- veys to quantify passengers' current airport access behavior and their likely behavioral changes in response to potential future changes in the factors that affect demand for airport parking. The analysis of these surveys contributed to the predictive modeling tool that air- port operators and other planning agencies will find helpful as they evaluate potential park- ing strategies.
OCR for page R8
CONTENTS 1 Summary 7 Chapter 1 Background on Airport Parking Operations 7 Parking as Part of the Airport Ground Access Environment 7 Airline Passengers 8 Airport Employees 8 Parking Products 9 Public Parking Products 12 Employee Parking Products 12 Airport Parking Areas Not Covered in This Handbook 12 Understanding Customer Segments 12 Airline Passengers 14 Airport Employees 16 Chapter 2 Constrained Airport Parking Environment 16 Types of Airport Parking Constraints 16 Causes of Airport Parking Constraints 17 Parking Supply Constraints 17 Influences on Parking Demand 18 Effects and Consequences of Constrained Airport Parking 18 Customer Satisfaction 19 Airport Roadway Traffic Congestion 19 Increased Vehicle Emissions 20 Increased Costs 20 Lost Revenue 20 Potential Diversion to Other Airports 20 Airport Employee Retention 21 Chapter 3 Goals and Objectives for Managing Constrained Airport Parking Environments 21 Factors That Influence the Development of Goals and Objectives for an Airport Parking System 22 Internal Influences 22 External Influences 23 Developing Goals and Objectives 24 Financial Objectives 25 Customer Service Objectives 25 Traffic Management and Mode-Share Objectives 27 Environmental Objectives 27 Land-Use Objectives
OCR for page R9
28 Chapter 4 Predicting Public Parking Constraints 28 Historical Parking Patterns 28 Monitor Parking Occupancy Data by Facility 29 Monitor Exits by Facility 29 Get Information on Previous Constrained Parking Events 29 Passenger Projections 29 Operational Experience and Knowledge 32 Chapter 5 Strategies to Address Constrained Public Parking 32 Strategies to Respond to Ongoing Constraints 32 Increase Public Parking Supply 33 Introduce New Parking Products 33 Reallocate Supply among Public Parking Categories 34 Adjust Parking Rates 36 Introduce Technology Improvements 38 Promote Use of HOV Modes 39 Strategies to Respond to Short-Term Constraints 39 Provide Hands-On Management in Constrained Parking Facilities 39 Adjust Parking Rates on a Temporary Basis 40 Disseminate Public Information 40 Provide Temporary Overflow Parking 40 Direct Parking Customers to Privately Operated Parking Facilities 41 Considerations for Evaluating Strategies to Resolve or Manage Constrained Parking 41 Strategies to Respond to Ongoing Constraints 45 Strategies to Respond to Short-Term Constraints 49 Chapter 6 Predicting Outcomes of Selected Strategies 49 Formal Tools 49 Airport Mode Choice Models 51 Airport Parking Models 52 ACRP Project 10-06 Airport Parking Forecast Model 60 Informal Tools 62 Chapter 7 Guidelines for Strategy Selection 62 Strategy Selection Approach 62 Initial Filtering Phase 62 Alternatives Analysis Phase 64 Comparative Analysis Phase 64 Strategy Selection Example 64 Nature and Causes of Constraints 68 Potential Strategies 69 Initial Filtering Phase 69 Alternatives Analysis Phase 75 Comparative Analysis Phase and Strategy Selection 77 Chapter 8 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies 77 Data Sources 78 Parking Revenue Control System 79 Supplemental Parking Data 79 Airline O&D Passenger Survey Data
OCR for page R10
81 Vehicle Activity and Vehicle Occupancy Counts 82 Enplaned O&D Passenger Activity 82 Measuring Effects of Parking Strategies 82 Public Parking Activity 83 Financial Performance 84 Vehicle Traffic Volume 88 Emissions Generated 88 Mode-Share Distribution 88 Customer Service 89 Chapter 9 Strategies to Address Constrained Employee Parking 89 Airport Employee Commute Environment 89 Strategies to Address Constrained Employee Parking 90 Increase Capacity 90 Consolidate the Parking Supply 90 Reassign Parking Facilities 90 Adjust Parking Rates 91 Offer Alternatives to the Drive-Alone Commute 95 Evaluating Strategy Effectiveness 95 Data Sources 96 Measuring Impacts 98 References 99 Glossary 101 Acronyms Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.