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10 · Observation period (as used by Maryland, Nebraska, this study deals with conventional DBB projects and does and South Carolina for durable pavement mark- not address DB contracts. ings): typically a 180-day period following application to determine whether pavement markings meet proj- ect construction specifications for an initial period of ORGANIZATION OF SYNTHESIS performance. · Performance period [as used by the Texas DOT Chapter two provides background information drawn from (TxDOT) and Delaware DOT]: a period following the literature review: a brief history of construction warranty initial acceptance to evaluate further the performance use in the United States, with lessons learned from these early of pavement marking materials and installation, but trials; description of the activities of the FHWA related to before commencing the provisions of the warranty pavement marking performance and warranty administra- specification. tion; and a summary of measures of the performance of pave- · Warranty period: a period after construction accep- ment markings that are widely applied in warranty specifi- cations. Chapter three presents the main findings of this tance during which the provisions of the warranty spec- study, drawing on statistical tallies of key survey results from ifications apply. Warranty periods often extend for 1 to U.S. state DOTs and Canadian provincial transportation min- 6 years. Some warranties (e.g., in harsh climates or for istries, as well as interviews with pavement marking con- paint) may extend for 180 days (6 months) and may tractors and materials manufacturers. This chapter also covers encompass a winter period. The successful conclusion the review of literature related to European pavement markings of the warranty period relieves the contractor and/or warranty practices. Chapter four concludes the report. The materials manufacturer of any further responsibilities survey questionnaire, which was developed with the advice for pavement marking performance. and assistance of the Topic Panel, is reproduced in Appendix A. The interview guide that was used in discussions with the Multi-year, performance-based warranty specifications contractors and materials manufacturers is included in are often linked with an alternate method of contracting, Appendix B. Agencies and firms that participated in the sur- design-build (DB). The contracting relationships in DB and vey and the interviews, respectively, are listed in Appendix the roles and responsibilities of the public and private sec- C. Examples of pavement marking warranty specifications tor entities involved are different, however, from those in that were provided by agencies as part of their survey the more conventional DBB projects envisioned in this responses are compiled in Appendix D (which is provided as study. For example, the relationships inherent in work per- a web-only portion of this report). Appendix E (also web formance and acceptance in Figures 2 through 5 do not only) describes comparative road constructionwarranty apply under DB; moreover, warranty specifications used practices of several European nations as identified in previ- with DB are subject to a separate set of federal regulations ous reports and two international scans conducted by the (23 CFR 635.413(e)). To maintain focus and consistency, FHWA and AASHTO.