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5 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION STUDY OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE their ability to achieve their respective objectives under a fair and reasonable warranty arrangement. Successful U.S. and Objectives Canadian firms have honed production, procurement, and application practices that enable them to meet performance The primary objective of this study has been to compile requirements even when faced with demanding traffic, win- information on the existing and potential use of warranty tertime, or other road conditions. specifications for pavement markings on U.S. and Canadian highways. Further objectives have been to compare U.S. practice with Canadian experience and with the European Transportation agencies may consider the use of pave- approach to pavement marking warranties, and to identify ment marking warranties to gain one or more benefits--for gaps in current knowledge that suggest needs for future example, superior performance, reduced need for inspection research. personnel, reduced life-cycle costs, and potential for con- tractor innovation. Warranties are attractive particularly if a potentially higher bid price is still cheaper than other options; Pavement Markings for example, the cost of more frequent pavement re-marking, the cost to highway users of degraded safety and of increased Pavement markings encompass lane dividers, pavement edge congestion owing to road occupancy during more frequent marking, crosswalks, "Stop" bars, symbols (such as direc- re-marking, or the cost of research and development that tional arrows), cross-hatching, and messages or legends that would be needed by agencies to develop superior marking provide information, guidance, and warnings to motorized materials and methods on their own. However, there are also and nonmotorized road users. Pavement markings play an drawbacks to pavement marking warranties that are cited by important role in reducing congestion and improving safety other agencies that choose not to use them; for example, by guiding traffic flows, providing modal separation, getting increased demands on personnel to ensure warranty com- the attention of drivers at critical locations, and providing pliance, greater administrative burdens, delays in closing information that promotes safe and smooth vehicular and out highway construction contracts, and adverse impacts pedestrian movement. Markings comprise different materials to construction contractors. This study has explored these including various types of paints, thermoplastics, preformed different motivations and opinions that surround warranty thermoplastic, tape, polymer materials, and different categories specifications. of discrete physical markers [e.g., raised pavement markers (RPMs), recessed markers, snowplowable markers]. Value of This Study Highway Construction Warranties Both the public and the private sectors have worthwhile knowl- edge, experience, and perceptions of pavement marking per- Pavement marking warranties are one form of highway con- formance and the application of warranty specifications. How- struction warranty. Construction warranties transfer the risk ever, to date, this information has not been organized within a inherent in maintaining acceptable asset performance to a single source for use by the highway community. In meeting private sector firm--a contractor or materials manufacturer-- this objective, this synthesis report serves several purposes: in exchange for a potentially higher bid price. Additional benefits may attend to warranty use, particularly in improved To inform readers of the status of pavement marking product quality and performance. To date, state department warranty use; of transportation (DOT) experience with pavement marking To illustrate current variations in warranty requirements, warranties varies among agencies, but warranty acceptance, duration, and administration; use, and willingness to experiment with longer-duration To identify factors underlying different warranty provi- specifications appear to be increasing. Canadian provincial sions and approaches; for example, the type of marking agencies, materials manufacturers, and contractors that pro- (longitudinal, transverse, legend), the marking material, vided information for this study exhibited a strong accep- geographic location and climate, traffic volume, and so tance of pavement marking warranties and confidence in forth;