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6 To present the pros and cons of such warranties as markings as part of new pavement construction, road resur- expressed by knowledgeable parties; and facing, or re-marking of an existing surface. To provide examples of pavement marking warranty specifications now used by several agencies. STUDY APPROACH This synthesis study has gathered relevant information through Scope a review of the domestic and international literature, surveys of U.S. state DOTs and Canadian provincial transportation agen- The scope of this study encompasses several topics that will cies, and interviews with private sector firms involved in man- inform readers of the development, use, and effects of pave- ufacturing materials for or applying pavement markings. The ment marking warranty specifications: literature review provided an historical perspective on high- way construction warranties generally and pavement marking Current agency use of pavement marking warranty warranties specifically. It also established background infor- specifications and their degree of satisfaction to date. mation on the domestic use of warranty specifications as com- Impact of state law and departmental policy on agen- pared with Canadian and European experience. The state DOT cies' evaluations of whether or not to consider using survey was conducted with the assistance of the AASHTO pavement marking warranty specifications. Highway Subcommittee on Traffic Engineering. The survey Assessments of the cost impacts of pavement marking of Canadian provincial agencies was facilitated by the Trans- warranty specifications; that is, the additional costs to portation Association of Canada. Interviews with materials the agency of warranty use and the presumed life-cycle manufacturers and U.S. and Canadian pavement marking benefits in terms of long-term cost reductions to the contractors were conducted by telephone, based on contacts agency and to road users. suggested by the Topic Panel. The types of warranty specifications used by transporta- tion agencies, and the party (or parties) held responsible The initial round of the survey, which included several for meeting warranty requirements. electronic mailings, yielded 32 responses: 24 from U.S. state The duration of the warranty period, and how that DOTs and 8 from Canadian provincial agencies. At a subse- length varies with marking material and other factors. quent meeting with the Topic Panel it was agreed that the Technical aspects of warranty administration; for exam- number of survey responses was not sufficient to represent an ple, the types of specifications and data provided to bid- accurate picture of current pavement marking warranty use. ders, frequency of pavement marking inspection once An additional round of surveys was conducted, first by the installed markings have been accepted, typical mea- another electronic mailing and then by telephone, using a sures used to characterize pavement marking perfor- streamlined version of the questionnaire. This latest round mance, corrective measures specified for the contractor brought the total number of responses to 48, as tallied in or materials manufacturer to maintain compliance, and Table 1. In addition to response rate, Table 1 gives the num- effects of external factors (e.g., snow plowing and traf- ber of agencies that provided current examples of their spec- fic volume) on warranty requirements and responsibili- ifications for pavement marking warranties. Several agencies ties of the contractor or materials manufacturer. sent more than one specification, because their warranties Financial and business aspects of warranty administra- cover multiple pavement marking materials or different per- tion; for example, payment schedules (particularly for formance periods. These example specifications are compiled multi-year warranties); bonding arrangements, if any; in Appendix D (a web-only portion of the report). and whether discussions with the construction industry have been held before warranty implementation. Survey responses were organized further according to The benefits of pavement marking warranty specifica- agency interest and experience in using pavement marking tions as perceived by agencies that have successfully warranty specifications. The relevant categories are described implemented them and continue to use them. here, with the breakdown of all responses summarized in By contrast, the perceived drawbacks of pavement Figure 1. marking warranty specifications that have caused agencies to discontinue their use or dissuaded agen- Agencies that now use pavement marking warranties. cies from considering warranties if they have not yet Twenty-three of the 48 responding agencies (48%) now used them. use pavement marking warranties and are likely to con- Examples of pavement marking warranty specifications tinue to do so. One agency reported a history of war- currently in use by state and provincial transportation ranty use extending more than two decades. Several agencies. have applied their experience to expanding the scope of their warranties, and others have already implemented The study has focused on pavement marking warranty speci- or are considering improvements in their warranty fications associated with conventional contracting approaches administration. Of the 23 agencies that now use pave- to construction projects; that is, design-bid-build (DBB). ment marking warranties, 15 sent examples of their These projects would involve the application of pavement specifications (see Table 1), which provided good cov-