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47 The cities said they have no allies when dealing with the large Census, Transportation, 2002 Commodity Flow Survey, Hazardous national railroads, which have their own statutes and federal Materials, Table 1a, Dec. 2004. 10. National Transportation Safety Board. Railroad Accident Brief: Col- agency. Their comments included the following: lision of Two Union Pacific Railroad Freight Trains, Texarkana, Arkansas, Oct. 15, 2005. www.ntsb.gov/publictn/2006/RAB0604.htm. "Local governments face a very uneven playing field when Accessed April 17, 2008. addressing railroad issues. Railroads have their own DOT 11. Association of American Railroads. Hazmat Transportation by Rail: agency, separate funding, separate authorities. Local gov- An Unfair Liability (Sept. 2009). www.aar.org/incongress//media/ aar/backgroundpapers/hazmattransportationbyrailanunfairliability ernments' funding tends to be filtered through counties, .ashx. Accessed July 27, 2010. states, and RPOs [regional planning organizations]." 12. Ely, J. W., Jr. Railroads and American Law. University Press of Kansas, "Railroads always claimed to be federally protected due to Lawrence, Kansas, 2001, pp. 71105. the interstate commerce laws. . . . Federal laws need to be 13. Federal Highway Administration. Highway Statistics 2006. Table addressed that require better service from the railroad." HM-14: Federal-Aid Highway Length, 2006--Miles by Ownership. www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/ohim/hs06/roadway_extent.htm. "Railroads need to be more friendly to the local people" Accessed March 9, 2010. (from a city official whose city is the headquarters for a 14. Federal Highway Administration. Highway Statistics 2006. Table Class I railroad). HM-48: Federal-Aid Highway Lane-Length, 2006--Lane-Miles by "We have not had any successful project reviews by the System. www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/ohim/hs06/roadway_extent.htm. railroad." Accessed March 9, 2010. 15. Federal Highway Administration. Highway Statistics 1997. Table HM-48: Federal-Aid Highway Lane-Length, 1997--Estimated Lane- References Miles by System. www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/hs97/roads.htm. Accessed March 9, 2010. 1. Federal Railroad Administration. Freight Railroads Background. 16. Blincoe, L. J., A. G. Seay, E. Zaloshnja, T. R. Miller, E. O. Romano, www.fra.dot.gov/downloads/policy/freight2006%20final.pdf. S. Luchter, and R. S. Spicer. The Economic Impact of Motor Vehicle Accessed April 30, 2008. Crashes, 2000. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2. Stover, J. F. American Railroads, 2nd ed. University of Chicago U.S. Department of Transportation, May 2002. Press, Chicago, 1997, pp. 153, 194. 17. Report of the National Surface Transportation Policy and Revenue 3. Association of American Railroads. U.S. Freight Railroad Productiv- Study Commission: Transportation for Tomorrow. National Surface ity (Sept. 2009). www.aar.org/incongress//media/aar/background Transportation Policy and Revenue Study Commission, Washing- papers/usfreightrailroadproductivity.ashx. Accessed July 27, 2010. ton, D.C., Dec. 2007, Vol. 2, Chap. 4. 4. Office of Freight Management and Operations, Federal Highway 18. Federal Highway Administration. Status of the Nation's Highways, Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Table 3-1: Bridges, and Transit: 2006 Conditions and Performance. Chapter 8: Miles of Infrastructure by Transportation Mode, 19802005. http:// Executive Summary. www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/2006cpr/es08h.htm. ops.fhwa.dot.gov/freight/freight_analysis/nat_freight_stats/docs/ Accessed Feb. 11, 2008. 07factsfigures/table3_1.htm. Accessed March 5, 2010. 19. Federal Highway Administration. Status of the Nation's Highways, 5. Office of Freight Management and Operations, Federal Highway Bridges, and Transit: 2006 Conditions and Performance. High- Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Tables 2-1 and lights. www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/2006cpr/hilights.htm. Accessed 2.1M: Weight of Shipments by Mode, 2002, 2006, 2035. http://ops Feb. 11, 2008. .fhwa.dot.gov/freight/freight_analysis/nat_freight_stats/docs/ 20. Federal Highway Administration. Status of the Nation's Highways, 07factsfigures/table2_1.htm. Accessed April 17, 2008. Bridges, and Transit: 2006 Conditions and Performance. Chapter 4: 6. Association of American Railroads. Class I Railroad Statistics Executive Summary. www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/2006cpr/es04h.htm. (May 24, 2010). www.aar.org//media/aar/Industry%20Info/AAR% Accessed March 10, 2010. 20Stats%202010%200524.ashx. Accessed July 27, 2010. 21. Federal Highway Administration. Price Trends for Federal-Aid High- 7. Cambridge Systematics. National Rail Freight Infrastructure Capacity way Construction. www.fhwa.dot.gov/programadmin/pt2006q4.cfm. and Investment Study. Association of American Railroads, Washing- Accessed Feb. 11, 2008. ton, D.C., Sept. 2007, p. ES-2. 22. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, 3rd ed. Project 8. Association of American Railroads. Railroads: Moving America Management Institute, Newtown Square, Pa., 2004, pp. 79, 1617. Safely (June 2010). www.aar.org/incongress//media/aar/back 23. DOT-Funded Positions and Other Support to Resource and Regula- groundpapers/railroadsmovingamericasafely.ashx. Accessed July 27, tory Agencies, Tribes, and Non-Governmental Organizations for 2010. Environmental Stewardship and Streamlining Initiatives. AASHTO 9. Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Research and Innovative Tech- Center for Environmental Excellence, Washington, D.C., May 2005. nology Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, and http://environment.transportation.org/center/products_programs/ Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce. 2002 Economic dot_funded.aspx. Accessed March 10, 2010.