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NCFRP NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 7 Sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Identifying and Using Low-Cost Administration and Quickly Implementable Ways to Address Freight-System Mobility Constraints

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of July 2010.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM NCFRP REPORT 7 Identifying and Using Low-Cost and Quickly Implementable Ways to Address Freight-System Mobility Constraints Battelle Columbus, OH IN ASSOCIATION WITH Jeffrey Short, Todd Trego, and Dan Murray AMERICAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH INSTITUTE Arlington, VA Joan Yim and Timothy Neuman CH2M HILL Bellevue, WA Gordon Proctor GORDON PROCTOR AND ASSOCIATES Dublin, OH Robert Gallamore THE GALLAMORE GROUP Rehoboth Beach, DE Shobna Varma STARISIS CORPORATION Lewis Center, OH Subscriber Categories Construction Design Economics Freight Transportation Highways Marine Transportation Motor Carriers Operations and Traffic Management Planning and Forecasting Railroads Terminals and Facilities Research sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT NCFRP REPORT 7 RESEARCH PROGRAM America's freight transportation system makes critical contributions Project NCFRP-04 to the nation's economy, security, and quality of life. The freight ISSN 1947-5659 transportation system in the United States is a complex, decentralized, ISBN 978-0-309-15508-3 and dynamic network of private and public entities, involving all Library of Congress Control Number 2010937481 modes of transportation--trucking, rail, waterways, air, and pipelines. 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. In recent years, the demand for freight transportation service has been increasing fueled by growth in international trade; however, bottlenecks or congestion points in the system are exposing the COPYRIGHT INFORMATION inadequacies of current infrastructure and operations to meet the Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining growing demand for freight. Strategic operational and investment written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously decisions by governments at all levels will be necessary to maintain published or copyrighted material used herein. freight system performance, and will in turn require sound technical Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this guidance based on research. publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, The National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) is FMCSA, FTA, RITA, or PHMSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. a cooperative research program sponsored by the Research and It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not- Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) under Grant No. for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DTOS59-06-G-00039 and administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB). The program was authorized in 2005 with the passage of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). On September 6, 2006, a contract to NOTICE begin work was executed between RITA and The National Academies. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Freight The NCFRP will carry out applied research on problems facing the Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. freight industry that are not being adequately addressed by existing The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this research programs. report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Program guidance is provided by an Oversight Committee comprised The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to of a representative cross section of freight stakeholders appointed by procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. the National Research Council of The National Academies. The NCFRP Oversight Committee meets annually to formulate the research The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. funding levels and expected products. Research problem statements The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research recommending research needs for consideration by the Oversight Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Freight Research Program do not Committee are solicited annually, but may be submitted to TRB at any endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely time. Each selected project is assigned to a panel, appointed by TRB, because they are considered essential to the object of the report. which provides technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. Heavy emphasis is placed on including members representing the intended users of the research products. The NCFRP will produce a series of research reports and other products such as guidebooks for practitioners. Primary emphasis will be placed on disseminating NCFRP results to the intended end-users of the research: freight shippers and carriers, service providers, suppliers, and public officials. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCFRP REPORT 7 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Editor NCFRP PROJECT 04 PANEL C. Randal Mullett, Con-way, Inc., Washington, DC (Chair) Teresa M. Adams, University of WisconsinMadison, Madison, WI John Isbell, Starboard Alliance, LLC, Manzanita, OR H. Thomas Kornegay, Houston, TX Janice Susie Lahsene, Port of Portland, OR James W. McClellan, Woodside Consulting, Virginia Beach, VA Craig Philip, Ingram Barge Company, Nashville, TN Peter F. Swan, Pennsylvania State UniversityHarrisburg, Middletown, PA Ronald J. Duych, RITA Liaison Caesar Singh, RITA Liaison Joedy W. Cambridge, TRB Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under the NCFRP Project 04, "Identifying and Using Low- Cost and Quickly Implementable Ways to Address Freight-System Mobility Constraints," by Battelle, Columbus, Ohio, with subcontract support from the American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI), CH2M HILL, Gordon Proctor and Associates, The Gallamore Group, and StarIsis Corporation. Dr. Edward Fekpe, a Research Leader with Battelle, was the principal investigator for the project and the lead author of this report. Other contributing authors are Dr. Robert Gallamore of The Gallamore Group, Jeffrey Short and Todd Trego of ATRI, Joan Yim and Timothy Neuman of CH2M HILL, Gordon Proctor of Gordon Proctor and Associates, and Shobna Varma of StarIsis Corporation. Other project team members that contributed to the development of this report are Mohammed Majed and Garnell Sowell of Battelle, Dan Murray of ATRI, and Brian Painley of CH2M HILL. The project team acknowledges the guidance and support of the NCFRP Project 04 panel members.

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FOREWORD By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board NCFRP Report 7: Identifying and Using Low-Cost and Quickly Implementable Ways to Address Freight-System Mobility Constraints develops standardized descriptions of the dimensions of the freight transportation system, defines freight mobility constraints in a multimodal context, pro- vides criteria for low-cost and quickly implementable improvements to address the constraints, and provides a software tool to help decision makers in evaluating constraints and selecting appropriate improvements. The report will enable both the public and private sectors to ben- efit from operational improvements, organizational changes, and other low-cost ways to address freight-system mobility constraints. The nation's freight infrastructure is well established and mature but overburdened. Increasing congestion inflicts costs on shippers, consumers, and the environment. Evolv- ing technologies, growing demand, changing business practices, shifting patterns of com- merce, and government policies designed to address environmental and other public con- cerns have impacts, sometimes unintended, on freight system performance. Because expansions to the freight transportation system are often complicated and expensive, both private-sector firms and public policymakers often try to find operational improvements, organizational changes, or other low-cost and quickly implementable ways to address mobility constraints. Under NCFRP Project 4, Battelle was asked to (1) develop a standardized description of the dimensions of the freight system by mode; (2) analyze explicitly the business practices and institutional factors that influence freight-system decision makers and stakeholders as they respond to freight-system mobility constraints and regulatory and other public policy initiatives; (3) develop a methodology that both the public and private sectors can use to identify, categorize, and evaluate quickly implementable, low-cost capital, operational, and public policy actions that can enhance freight mobility by addressing system constraints; and (4) apply that methodology in a generic way to create a catalog of actions that may be most useful in addressing the nation's freight-system mobility constraints. To accomplish the project objectives, the research team (1) developed definitions of freight mobility constraint; (2) developed criteria for low-cost and quickly implementable improvement by mode; (3) characterized the improvements by physical improvements, operational improvements, and regulatory improvements; and (4) developed a computer- based application analysis tool for users to identify constraints based on selectable criteria and then to review possible improvements based on documentation of the experiences of departments of transportation and others.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 5 Chapter 1 Introduction and Research Approach 5 1.1 Problem Statement 6 1.2 Research Objectives 6 1.3 Research Approach 6 1.3.1 Overview 6 1.3.2 Data Collection 8 1.3.3 Data Analysis 9 Chapter 2 Literature Review 9 2.1 Introduction 9 2.2 Highways/Trucking 9 2.2.1 Defining the Freight Mobility Problem on Highways and Roadways 9 2.2.2 Definition of Low-Cost Highway Improvements 10 2.2.3 Examples of Physical Low-Cost Improvements 10 2.2.4 Low-Cost Operational/Technology Improvements 11 2.2.5 Examples of Low-Cost Operational Improvements 12 2.2.6 Low-Cost Regulatory/Public Policy Improvements 13 2.2.7 Examples of Low-Cost Regulatory Improvements 13 2.3 Railroads 13 2.3.1 Freight Capacity 14 2.3.2 Freight Mobility Constraints 14 2.3.3 Low-Cost Improvements 15 2.3.4 Examples of Low-Cost Rail Improvements 15 2.4 Water Ports and Inland Waterways 15 2.4.1 Marine Transportation System 15 2.4.2 System Capacity 15 2.4.3 Performance Indicators 16 2.4.4 Mobility Constraints 16 2.4.5 Low-Cost Improvements 16 2.4.6 Examples of Low-Cost Improvements 18 Chapter 3 Dimensions and Characteristics of the Freight System 18 3.1 Introduction 18 3.2 Networks and System Characteristics 18 3.3 System Performance 21 3.4 Highways 25 3.5 Railroads 29 3.6 Intermodal 30 3.7 Deepwater Ports 35 3.8 Inland Waterways

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35 3.8.1 Coastal and Intracoastal Waterways 35 3.8.2 Great Lakes System 35 3.8.3 Inland Rivers and Waterways 36 3.8.4 Locks and Dams 40 Chapter 4 Freight Mobility Constraints 40 4.1 Defining and Characterizing Freight Mobility Constraints 41 4.2 Causes and Locations of Mobility Constraints 41 4.2.1 Highways 42 4.2.2 Railroads 43 4.2.3 Deepwater Ports and Inland Waterways 44 4.2.4 Labor Unions 45 4.2.5 Summary 47 4.3 Measures or Indicators of Mobility Constraint 47 4.3.1 Highways 49 4.3.2 Railroads 49 4.3.3 Deepwater Ports and Inland Waterways 49 4.3.4 Summary 53 Chapter 5 Low-Cost, Quickly Implementable Improvements 53 5.1 Definition of Low-Cost, Quickly Implementable Improvements 53 5.1.1 Highways 54 5.1.2 Railroads 54 5.1.3 Deepwater Ports and Inland Waterways 55 5.2 Criteria for Low-Cost Improvements 56 5.3 Characterization of Improvements 56 5.3.1 Physical Improvements 56 5.3.2 Operational Improvements 56 5.3.3 Regulatory Improvements 56 5.4 Low-Cost Strategies for Addressing Mobility Constraints 56 5.4.1 Highways Improvement Strategies 61 5.4.2 Railroads Improvement Strategies 62 5.4.3 Deepwater and Inland Waterways Improvement Strategies 64 5.5 Summary of Improvements 68 Chapter 6 Methodology for Identifying and Evaluating Improvements 68 6.1 Introduction 68 6.2 Framework of Methodology 68 6.2.1 Characterization of Constraint 69 6.2.2 Selection of Improvements 71 6.2.3 Evaluation of Improvement Options 72 6.2.4 Query Database 72 6.3 Software Application 72 6.4 Feedback and Continuous Update of Database 72 6.5 Integration into Planning Process 73 6.5.1 Transportation Planning Process 74 6.5.2 Project Development Process 75 6.6 Evaluation of Beta Version of Tool

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76 Chapter 7 Catalog of Improvements 76 7.1 Introduction 76 7.2 Approach to Developing Catalog of Strategies 77 7.2.1 Highways 78 7.2.2 Railroads 82 7.2.3 Deepwater Ports and Inland Waterways 87 Chapter 8 Conclusions and Suggested Research 87 8.1 Conclusions 88 8.2 Recommendations for Further Research 90 References 93 Acronyms A-1 Appendix A Methodology User Guide B-1 Appendix B Annotated Bibliography C-1 Appendix C Interview Guide D-1 Appendix D Internet Survey Instrument E-1 Appendix E Low-Cost Improvement Analysis Tool (LCIAT) Evaluation Form Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.