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13 million dollar infrastructure projects. The most effective tool 2.3 Railroads of governance used in such a situation is public information, such as advertising campaigns to encourage use of mass tran- 2.3.1 Freight Capacity sit, telecommuting, or similar changes in behavior. Use of Rail infrastructure consists of track and structures, termi- additional tools such as local, state, and Federal tax expendi- nals or yards, locomotives, cars, and signals. The Tioga Group tures that benefit participating companies, and encourage (24) identified major factors affecting railroad capacity to additional participation, will add to the cost of such programs. include: The end result, however, may be beneficial to freight mobility. Transportation finance mechanisms also play a role in freight Number of tracks mobility. The cost of tolls, for instance, often cannot be passed Number and length of sidings from the for-hire trucking sector to customers. Thus, a toll road Number of crossovers and other connections often presents itself to the industry as a mobility constraint, Type of signaling especially when the decision is made to bypass a tolled interstate Speed limits as a result of the low willingness to pay among trucking compa- Grade and curvature. nies (21). A low-cost, quickly implementable solution to such constraints may be found through the use of simple and more Shortages of freight rail cars or locomotives also reduce the traditional methods of collecting highway revenue (e.g., motor capacity of the rail system. Similarly, excess numbers of cars fuel taxes). and locomotives can be costly to rail operations. Between 1985 Finally, there has been a growing public policy discussion and 2005, the number of rail freight cars stabilized between (22) related to changes in size and weight regulations for 1.2 million and 1.4 million, while the average capacity of rail commercial motor vehicles. The focus of the discussion is to cars grew from 53.7 tons to 97.2 tons (25). Also the number increase the size of truck configurations (through, for instance, locomotives increased by about 27 percent between 1992 and increased use of double and triple trailer configurations) and 2005 (4). This is a reflection of the continuous growth in weight (by allowing more weight than is currently legal with- freight demand and the use of freight cars with greater max- out requiring a special permit), which has the potential to imum payloads. Also, better signaling and communication result in the movement of the same amount of freight that is help improve utilization of existing tracks. Thus constraints currently moved, but with fewer tractors and lower emission to the movement of freight by rail can be defined in terms of rates per ton-mile. The benefits of such a policy change may these infrastructure components in addition to labor compo- be felt the greatest at freight origins and destinations, where nents that together provide rail services. space can often be limited. In addition, there are likely signif- According to a recent study (26), investment requirements icant benefits in long haul operations. for rail are driven by three factors: demand, current system capacity, and infrastructure expansion costs. USDOT estimates that the demand for rail freight transportation will almost dou- 2.2.7 Examples of Low-Cost ble by 2035 with 2002 as the base year. The growing demand Regulatory Improvements for freight transportation has direct impacts on the capacity Downtown Chicago Facility Regulations--Many build- of the rail freight system. Freight shippers and carriers are espe- ings are considered freight traffic hotspots due to inade- cially concerned about the future capacity and productivity of quate loading facilities. O'Laughlin et al. (23) suggest the the freight system. In addition to the growing demand for following standard policies for new buildings, intended to freight transportation, increasing congestion on the highway improve the efficiency of freight mobility: system could cause some freight to be diverted to rail. How- Comprehensive loading zone plan--e.g., physical inven- ever, escalating time constraints to move shipments or raw tory of loading zones materials through the supply chain may minimize these diver- Use metered freight loading zones (with graduated fees) sions. To absorb the growth, it was estimated that railroads Add loading zones in "hot spots" must add capacity to handle tonnage 88 percent above cur- Designate areas with on-street parking as loading zones rent volume. before 9 or 10 AM Major rail infrastructure improvements relate to line and Increase parking violation fines during rush hour for facility expansion. Line expansions include: obstructing traffic movements Initiate an enforcement program focused on non- Upgrades to the Class I railroads mainline tracks and signal commercial vehicles parked in dock areas control systems Distribute promotional materials to buildings with Improvements to significant rail bridges and tunnels (con- "where to call" information (reporting violations). struction of new parallel bridges and tunnels, overhead