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16 ports. Factors affecting port efficiency, which is a reflection of Difficulty of effective management and operation of the freight mobility, include the following (28): transportation system Funding is mode specific, and congestion at intermodal Labor efficiency (cargo moved per unit of labor) connections is not easily addressed. Land use efficiency (cargo storage per unit of land) Waterside access limitations 2.4.5 Low-Cost Improvements Capacity of port road and rail connections Inland transportation availability There is no clear definition of what constitutes a low-cost Cargo handling capability. action or strategy directed at addressing freight mobility con- straints in the available literature. However, the following Le-Griffin and Murphy (36) further noted that the exter- actions directed at improving freight mobility (28) could be nal factors influencing the productivity of container terminal characterized as such given the potential relatively lower costs operations include landside capacities and performance of compared to massive projects associated with seaport termi- intermodal rail and highway systems. Indicators of terminal nal projects: gate productivity measures are gate throughput measured by container/hour/lane and truck turnaround time measured by Operational Strategies truck time in terminal. More efficient port utilization--make the port "agile" by using "sprint" trains to take intermodal cargo directly 2.4.4 Mobility Constraints from dockside to more remote inland locations for stor- age and sorting prior to distribution. The expectation is As freight demand increases, congestion is expected to increased cargo capacity on waterfront acreage without increase on major freight transportation networks, particu- the necessity of new construction, new equipment, or larly where intermodal connections occur. Furthermore, with changes in labor. increasing international trade and with larger container ships Improved signage--Poor signage results in unproductive being built, there will be more pressure on the already con- time spent on roads, increased fuel consumption, and gested road and rail connections to major U.S. seaports. The increased cost of shipping. While better signage will not constraints and/or challenges facing port terminal operators, eliminate traffic congestion, it could provide an effective shippers, and other stakeholders involved in international shipping and domestic freight movement by mode include short-term solution to reduce some highway congestion the following (28): and improve safety. Disparate communication systems that are typically user Poor or inadequate rail infrastructure--Congestion to rail or mode specific and that lack horizontal interfaces with shipments--common impediments include low overpass other partners involved in the shipping process. bridges that restrict specific rail cars; availability of single- Expansion of terminal gate hours, e.g., through the track/single-operator port service; mainline rail terminals PierPASS program. and yards that are distant from ports; lack of on-dock rail Physical Strategies handling facilities Modernize locks and dams to regulate water flow and Lack of staging areas especially during peak cargo flow facilitate commerce (inland waterways). Landside access--congestion on highway approaches to Improve marine terminal capacity and access to rail, road, ports; turning lanes and radii on local roads are of increas- and pipeline. ing concern Deploy advanced computer, communications, and nav- Maintenance dredging igation technologies. Lack of state and Federal funding Regulatory Strategies Intermodal connectivity Increase number of hours and shifts that terminal gates Inadequate or unclear highway signage for port terminal and are open. access routes Reduce container dwell time. Connectivity--rail infrastructure connections at ports are often privately owned--these present special challenges for 2.4.6 Examples of Low-Cost Improvements coordination with the Class I rail carriers and motor carriers Inadequate communication between terminal operators Most low-cost improvements to address freight mobility con- and drayage trucking firms; also communications among straints encountered at the deepwater ports and on the inland Federal agencies within a given port cause delays waterway system are typically economic-incentivebased pro-

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17 grams that influence demand, changes that improve efficiency 8 AM to 6 PM). Traffic Mitigation Fees of $50 per 20-foot of operations and processes (including the use of advanced container and $100 per all other sizes of container are technologies), and projects that encourage modal shift. Phys- charged for daytime peak hour movements (Monday ical improvements are coordinated with highway and rail Friday: 3:00 AM to 6:00 PM) (38). improvements both within and outside the terminals. The Trucking Appointment System--Many terminals in the following are examples of such programs: United States, Latin America, and Europe use an Internet- based system (e.g., Forecast system) to provide real-time Congestion Pricing--The PierPASS OffPeak program was information for trucking companies to streamline gate pro- implemented in July 2005 at the Ports of Los Angeles and cessing, enhance truck driver turntime, and reduce customer Long Beach, as an incentive-based program to shift move- service costs. Shippers, consignees, brokers, and others ment of international containers from peak weekday hours receive advance information on import container availabil- to evenings and weekends. All 12 international container ity, vessel schedules, activity reports, and booking status. This terminals in the two ports established five new shifts per program enables improved planning and resource manage- week (MondayThursday: 6 PM to 3 AM and Saturday: ment and streamlines gate transactions (39).