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35 tion segment, a total of 64,300 jobs were found providing approximately 25,000 miles, with about 13,000 miles belong- services along the inland waterways, ocean, coastal water- ing to the network of coastal and intracoastal waterways and ways, and lakes in positions that were not classified as port 12,000 dedicated to inland waterways traffic (78). services. Of this total for 2007, 24,300 are employed in the inland waterway industry segment. 3.8.2 Great Lakes System The Great Lakes System is made up of seven waterways 3.8 Inland Waterways linked at a dozen lock sites. Oceangoing vessels gain access to Inland river ports and terminals are designed to load and the Great Lakes through the St. Lawrence Seaway. In terms unload barges that are pushed or pulled by towboat along the of tonnage, the largest ports within the Great Lakes System nation's navigable waterways. The Inland Rivers, Ports, and include Duluth-Superior, Chicago, Detroit, and Cleveland. Terminals (IRPT) Association defines an inland river port as The terminals at these ports generally handle dry bulk cargoes, an intermodal transportation center. It finds that the river including iron ore, grain, coal, sand, stone, and lumber. Spe- port is "first of all, an intermodal transportation and distribu- cial vessels, known as "lakers," can range as long as 1,000 feet tion center. Its secondary activity is industrial production and and carry up to 70,000 tons of gross cargo. Some oceangoing processing" (77). Grains, petroleum, LNG, ore, and gravel vessels operated on the Great Lakes, however, often do not are but a few of the major commodities moved by tug and exceed 35,000-dead weight tonnage (dwt) capacity (33). Due barge along the waterways not only from port to port but to weather extremes and climate associated with the Great also internationally. The Great Lakes ports handle similar Lakes, navigation is seasonal and typically lasts no longer than bulk cargoes on vessels specifically designed for Great Lake 8 months. Given the common boundaries of Canada and the transport. United States around the Great Lakes, there is an international In the United States, the inland waterway freight trans- aspect to the shipment of cargo through the St. Lawrence Sea- portation system generally consists of three types of systems: way and around the Great Lakes. Coastal and Intracoastal Waterways, the Great Lakes Sys- tem, and Inland River Systems. These systems are further dis- 3.8.3 Inland Rivers and Waterways cussed below. The network of inland rivers and waterways moves a sig- nificant portion of tonnage across the continental United 3.8.1 Coastal and Intracoastal Waterways States, mostly in dry bulk, commodities, and fuels. The three largest inland river systems include the Mississippi River sys- In the United States, "coastal waterway" is a term com- tem, Columbia-Snake Rivers in Washington and Oregon, monly used by the freight community to describe the coastal and the Black Warrior-Tombigbee Rivers in the Alabama- shipping routes along the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts and in- Gulf region (33). The Mississippi River system, including tracoastal waterways just inland of the coastline. By contrast the Ohio and Missouri tributary systems, is the largest inland with deepwater ports, coastal waterways ports are of a smaller freight waterway in the United States. The system extends to scale and do not typically haul containerized cargo, nor do approximately 6,000 miles and connects freight to 17 states. they handle vessels with deep drafts. It is maintained by the USACE. The Intracoastal Waterway runs along the Eastern Atlantic All inland river systems are shallow-draft systems and chan- seaboard and along the Gulf Coast. It is comprised of two seg- nel depths are not typically greater than 12 feet. Such depth is ments: the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) and Atlantic what prevents oceangoing vessels from utilizing inland water- Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW). Most of the traffic moving ways. Also characteristic of inland water systems are the types through the GIWW includes shallow-draft dry bulk and tank of vessels that utilize them, specifically barge and tug, and barges, while most of the traffic along the AIWW consists of towboats. These vessels are typically narrower and navigable recreational boaters and a limited extent of commercial ves- with pusher-style towboats, which navigate them to the locks. sels (33). Along the northern portion of the Atlantic coast, Each barge can carry between 1,000 and 1,800 tons of cargo. petroleum products and industrial heavy fuels are moved Grain elevators and coal depots are major terminals for these between the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states primarily along vessels (33). the Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Canal, and Cape Cod Canal. The IRPT Association uses the following river basin des- The coastal and intracoastal waterways and ports are used ignations to organize its board of directors. It assists those by shallow-draft vessels originating from or destined to inland unfamiliar with the waterways systems, as seen in Figure 11, rivers and are used for transferring loads or picking up goods. to visualize and understand the interconnected waterways The network of the coastal and inland waterway system is systems.