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44 Lack of truck appointment pickup and dropoff systems Empty container storage and movement Lack of expanded port gate hours Inadequate local street and highway access from terminal Lack of willingness to culturally accept working in off- Inadequate waterway or channel depths peak hours Inefficient terminal layout. Difficulty adjusting operations to cargo flow peak demand periods These are ranked in decreasing order of occurrence. Differences in shippers, port, and trucker operating hours Among the potential operational constraints, Transporta- Inadequate trained labor tion Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) requirements Equipment failures and maintenance requirements were identified by only a few respondents (less than 30 percent) IT/information lag times. as having an impact on freight mobility. Each port is unique in terms of configuration and operation. Therefore improve- 4.2.3.2 Regulatory Constraints ments that may be effective in addressing mobility constraints at one port may not necessarily be effective at another location. Following operational constraints, regulatory constraints were found to be a problem considering that regulations can affect physical capacity and operational conditions. Two regu- 4.2.4 Labor Unions latory issues cited are related to security and air quality The labor unions across all modes agreed that any factor that requirements. Terminal operators must have sufficient areas to defeats optimization of operations and causes delay is a "freight accommodate Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) mobility constraint." The framework within which the man- x-ray machines. The extra movement of a container onto a agement and labor relationship is structured varies from mode chassis to pass it through the screening equipment is also an to mode dependent on historical, legal, and modal operational extra step in moving freight within the yard. The air quality requirements. However, contractual terms of labor agreements requirements in Southern California requiring biodiesel fuel are noted to be major constraints. In general, labor faces oper- can be problematic for terminal operators as they and their ational and physical constraints more than regulatory ones. partners in the supply chain, e.g., vessel operators and truck The following are cross-cutting commonalities among labor drivers, strive to come into compliance. unions. 4.2.3.3 Physical Constraints 4.2.4.1 Physical Constraints Physical capacity at the port terminals is of the least concern Insufficient Infrastructure Capacity. Motor carriers, rail- of the three constraint types. The following physical constraints road workers, waterways labor, lock and dam operators, and were identified: longshore clerks and checkers all indicated the lack of suffi- cient capacity to move cargo efficiently through their systems Access to streets and highways outside the gate as a major constraint. Channel conditions at deepwater ports Terminal layout land access and along inland waterways must be deep enough so that ves- Barriers to rail efficiency sels can pass safely while heavily laden with containerized or Wharf conditions bulk cargo. The lack of sufficient clearances and channel width Gate configurations at deepwater ports not only is a freight mobility constraint but Lack of channel depth. also has safety implications. On the inland waterways, physical capacity is frequently Lack of Maintenance of Existing Equipment and Facili- restricted by weather conditions including fog. ties. Scheduling equipment outages for maintenance can Using delay as an indication of mobility constraint, the cause backups across all modes. Roadways, railroads, port ter- respondents noted that the longest delays occur at the marine minals, locks and dams, and waterways terminals routinely terminals. The wharves and the approaches to the (inland experience some maintenance cycle shutdowns. Better plan- waterway) waterside were also identified as choke points in ning and coordination across modes and involving labor in the marine freight mobility. planning would improve the situation. The respondents representing deepwater ports and inland waterways identified the following physical freight mobility 4.2.4.2 Operational Constraints constraints that are often encountered: Labor Utilization. The labor unions have special concerns Inadequate terminal capacity with how some current contractual requirements impede effi- Physical barriers to rail operations cient crew utilization. For example, the problems with excess