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49 performance metrics. Customer-related metrics include how revenue) or, for public companies, earnings per share or often a carrier delivers or picks up on time, the service times stock price. Some of the suggested metrics (velocity, cus- to move freight from the point of origin to the final destina- tomer satisfaction, revenue growth) are drivers of financial tion, or revenue per truck per day. performance, while stock price is a derivative. Fleet operations metrics include stops per driver (in metro- politan areas only) per day, the cost to provide service to an 4.3.3 Deepwater Ports and area, and the amount of time a driver is delayed. Other metrics Inland Waterways focus on operational efficiency and equipment use and may include: Several indicators were noted to be of importance to processes and to overall supply chain costs and operations Percentage of truck engine idle time for ports: Average speed per truck Truck utilization (miles per tractor per day) Traffic volume demand and response cycle monitoring to Billed versus unbilled miles (indicator of out-of-route adequately plan for and handle surges, clogs, dead times. miles or non-revenue-generating miles). On-time arrival percentage of time for ships, labor, trucks, and rail. Other measures used by carriers to monitor the impact of Dwell time in days, i.e., the number of days the cargo sits mobility constraints on performance are driver stress (conges- in the terminal. tion is a significant factor leading to driver stress) and driver Overall supply chain transportation velocity because uneven retention/turnover rates, typically higher in heavily congested freight velocity is the key indicator for goods requiring syn- areas. chronization and controlled integration into manufacturing or retail streams. As one respondent stated, "low freight 4.3.2 Railroads velocity is the key indicator for high-value retail goods, but it is difficult to quantify or identify as it (the supply chain) The following rail industry metrics are used to gauge per- encompasses many players, routes, modes, and transfer formance and to indicate mobility constraints: points." Available competitive transportation options, because 1. Train speed--measures the line-haul movement between the customer is looking for the cheapest route from origin terminals. The average speed is calculated by dividing train- to destination. Competition can be as simple as the num- miles by total hours operated, excluding yard and local ber of rail lines serving one port or the shipping by rail trains, passenger trains, maintenance of way trains, and ter- costs at one port in the United States and one port in minal time. Train speed is a good measure of mobility; however, data on train speed are not readily available except Canada. One respondent cited the fact that rail rates are at aggregate levels. currently $400/box cheaper at a port in Canada and are 2. Terminal dwell time--is the average time a car resides at far cheaper than those rail rates charged in a nearby U.S. the specified terminal location expressed in hours. Dwell port. The U.S. port customers are moving discretionary time measures delay and indicates mobility problems. cargo to Canada to take advantage of the cheaper rail However, data on dwell time are not generally available rates. and may be difficult to interpret for low-cost improvement Cost volatility related to suddenly increasing costs, e.g., projects. fuel, insurance, security requirements. 3. Safety--the most important performance objective, for Customer satisfaction, as unhappy customers due to delays most respondents. Whereas this measure does not indicate or lapses in pickup and other terminal operator responsi- mobility, performance is used to gauge freight mobility. bilities can mean a loss of customers. 4. Customer service--customer satisfaction is the second Labor supply or enough trained workers who are available most often used metric and one of the most important when needed and are stable without unrest and threats of management performance objectives. In addition, railroads strikes for higher pay. sometimes use percentage of on-time arrivals, car cycle times, and cars moving on correct trains as customer ser- 4.3.4 Summary vice metrics to measure performance. 5. Financial results--take various forms, such as measure- Figure 17 shows the ranking of the performance measures in ment of the precursor operating ratio (expenses divided by decreasing order of use in monitoring freight mobility systems

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50 State DOTs and MPOs Motor Carriers 5.0 5.0 4.0 4.0 Weighted Ranking Weighted Ranking Average Truck Speed 3.0 3.0 Driver Delay Pay Driver Delay Truck Idle Time 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 Departure... On-Time Pickup Utilization/miles Out-of-Route Stops per On-Time Terminal and/or Delivery Driver 0.0 Miles Driver Average Delay Level of Percentage Traffic speed service of trucks volume Railroads Deepwater Ports and Inland Waterways 5.0 5.0 and/or departure On-time arrival 4.0 4.0 Gate transactions per day Weighted Ranking Weighted Ranking On-time pickup/delivery 3.0 Level of service 3.0 On-time arrival/departure Average speed Level of service Stop per hour 2.0 2.0 Traffic volume 1.0 1.0 Delay 0.0 0.0 Lifts per... On-time... Dwell... Truck... Level of Idle time Average service time(hrs/days) Traffic volume speed Idle time Delay Dwell Figure 17. Ranking of performance indicators. and in identifying constraints. The performance measures vary Table 22 summarizes the major causes of freight mobility by mode but there are some similarities between rail and deep- constraint by mode and shows the top ranked performance water. For freight movement by highway mode, delay is a com- measures. Table 23 presents examples of freight mobility con- mon measure used by both the public and private sectors in straints by type (physical, operational, and regulatory) and by monitoring and identifying freight mobility constraints. For mode from public- and private-sector perspectives. rail and deepwater ports, on the other hand, idle time is most The next chapter develops the criteria for low-cost and commonly used, while delay is seldom used to monitor and quickly implementable improvements to address the freight identify constraints. mobility constraints discussed in this chapter.

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51 Table 22. Primary causes of mobility constraints by mode. Mode Primary Causes Metrics/Indicators Regulatory constraints State DOTs and MPOs Land use controls and regulations Average truck speed Parking restrictions Delay to traffic Speed limits Level of service Safety regulations Average daily traffic/truck Hours-of-service regulations; traffic including percentage of Highway geometry (e.g., outdated trucks Highways interchange and intersection designs to meet Truck trips per day traffic demand and requirements of longer Motor carriers trucks; roundabouts near freight facilities) On-time customer Inadequate system management including pickup/delivery outdated/inadequate traffic signal systems Driver delay Inadequate capacity to meet increasing Driver utilization/mile demands Truck idle time Poor road signage including warning signs Average truck speed Regulatory constraints (Federal and state) Idle time Inadequate physical capacity Average train speed Constrained capital budget Level of service Railroads Lack of skilled labor Terminal dwell time Poorly structured labor work rules On-time customer pick-up and/or delivery Regulatory constraints (e.g., land use controls Idle time and regulations) Gate transactions per day Inadequate capacity of intermodal connectors Truck trips per day Deepwater (truck and rail) port and Average speed Inadequate traffic system management on On-time pick-up and/or delivery inland intermodal connectors waterways Level of service Terminal gate operating hours Dwell time in hours or days Port terminal processing requirements Security and air quality regulations

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52 Table 23. Common mobility constraints by mode. Mode Physical Constraints Operational Constraints Regulatory Constraints Inadequate traveler Inadequate mainline information Lack of timely Parking restrictions capacity inadequate traveler information on number of lanes Truck lane restrictions incidents, weather, temporary Narrow roadway or Speed limit restrictions road closures, construction lanes zones Inadequate turning Route restrictions for long intersection radii and/or Poor road signage combination vehicle and channelized turns other trucks Inadequate weaving Land use controls and Poor signal phasing sections regulations Highways Long, steep grades with Lack of warning signs on DHS and other security no passing lanes crossroad approaches requirements Short interchange Lack of 24/7 access to Hours-of-service regulations ramps intermodal facilities On-street parking, bus or No turning lanes at Lack of interoperability in other roadside activities too intersections use of toll passes close to intersections Insufficient parking for Differences in truck size and Inadequate loading zones trucks weight regulations Lack of alternate routes Lack of reciprocity in truck Lack of drivers for large trucks licensing and inspection Signaling restrictions or less Mainline throughput than optimal signaling Federal and state regulations capacity outdated/inefficient signaling & telecommunications Inadequate sidings Terminals switching Labor issues supply, Railroads length efficiency training, and utilization Inadequate investments in locomotives and freight cars No passing siding Speed restrictions in urban Lack of funding areas Lack of skilled labor Inefficient terminal Labor unions and contractual layout/terminal gate Lack of labor /crew supply limitations configurations Inadequate capacity of Lack of truck appointment Restrictive security Deepwater intermodal connectors pickup and dropoff systems requirements port and Small, aging, unreliable Restricted terminal gate inland locks (lock capacity) operating hours waterways Lack of channel depth Inefficient terminal layout Restrictive air quality Flooding and Lack of electronic requirements insufficient clearance communication in rural areas (inland waterways) (inland waterways)