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55 60 < 6 mos >= 6 mos but < 1 yr >= 1 yr but < 2 yrs 50 >= 2 yrs Percent of Respondents 40 30 20 10 0 Highways Railroads Deepwater Ports Figure 18. Definition of "quickly implementable." (see Figure 18). The following section presents generic defini- and that can be implemented within a short period without tions of quickly implementable low-cost improvements. extended disruption to traffic flow. Such an improvement may be physical, operational, or regulatory, as long as it enables greater throughput from existing facilities. These actions may 5.2 Criteria for Low-Cost be spot (or location-specific) improvements or may be lim- Improvements ited to short sections of the physical infrastructure. Likewise, Based on discussions presented above, the following para- they may be specific to a given supply chain process point, graph presents generic criteria for low-cost, quickly imple- regulation, or mode; they may also be multimodal. Further- mentable improvements and is followed by mode-specific more, low-cost improvements do not involve massive recon- definitions. Table 24 summarizes key characteristics of these struction of infrastructure that usually takes many years to improvements. complete. A "low-cost and quickly implementable" improvement to Highways: A low-cost and quickly implementable improve- address freight mobility constraints may be defined as an ment does not require special programming, time-consuming action that modifies existing geometry and operational fea- environmental clearances, or right-of-way acquisition and are tures of the freight transportation infrastructure system within budget limitations enabling implementation at a district Table 24. Key features of low-cost and quickly implementable improvements. Quickly Mode Characteristics of Low-Cost Actions Implementable Less than $1 million Spot or location-specific improvements No environmental clearances necessary Highways No right-of-way acquisition Less than 1 year No special programming required Implementation at district lowest operation unit level (limited direct HQ oversight) Class I railroad $1 million to $10 million Less than 2 years Railroads Regional railroad less than $2 million Less than 1 year Short-line railroad less than $500,000 Less than 6 months Less than $1million Deepwater Physical improvements may involve highway and rail projects Ports & within and outside the port terminals at links serving ports location-specific actions Less than 2 years Inland Waterways Mainly operational actions including technology deployments Uniqueness of each port acknowledged