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64 Clearly beneficial results various stakeholders. While most constraints for the highway Regulatory compliance (including Customs and Border mode are physical, the improvements are a combination of Protection enforcement process improvements that bene- physical and operational actions. It is acknowledged that regu- fit the shipping line or the terminal) latory actions are more complex and not easily or quickly Minimizing financial impact to stakeholders. implemented. This is because regulatory changes would involve extensive rulemaking effort. Information on highway projects were obtained from projects implemented in Florida, Maryland, 5.5 Summary of Improvements Minnesota, New Jersey, Ohio, Texas, Utah, and Washington. Table 26 presents the range of options for different types of Table 27 summarizes actions commonly taken by motor constraints for highway movements. This table is based on carriers to avoid or eliminate the effects of constraints on their information on completed low-cost improvement projects by operations. These actions are intended to guide private-sector Table 26. Highways--public-sector improvements. Physical Physical Constraint Improvement Options Constraint Improvement Options Add turning lane Add a lane Widen lane Add warning signs Turning Radii Extend existing lane Speed reduction Modify median bull noses Inadequate Add lane Add channelization Mainline Capacity Add auxiliary lane Improve road signage Extend turning lane Restriping Weaving Add turning lane Signal upgrade Extend existing lane Revise merging/diverting area Redirection of traffic Add dedicated turning lane Restriping Add a lane Add auxiliary lane Extend turning lane Lane Drop Extend ramp length Inadequate Auxiliary lane Add auxiliary lane Intersection Widen turning lane Add turning lane capacity Signal phasing Add lane Intersection layout improvement Proper roundabout design near Add traffic signal freight facilities Extend acceleration and Operational Improvement Options deceleration lanes Constraint Extend ramp length Signal installation Traffic Control Ramp metering Traffic signal upgrade (lack of, or poor Interchange realignment Synchronize signal phasing Inadequate signal timing) Interchange Widen lane Signal phasing Capacity Improve road signage at Speed reduction Poor interchange entrances and exits Signage/Warning Signs Better advance navigational Add warning signs signing Improve road signage Remove ramp meter Steep Grade with Channelization Relocate ramp meter Ramp Meter Alter ramp metering operation Shortage of Truck More flexible use of drivers Restriping Drivers Regulatory Improvement Options Constraint Narrow Tunnel Add a lane Truck Lane Modify restrictions Steep Grade Add a passing lane Restrictions Provide parking facilities even Revise parking restrictions with no facilitiesa Inadequate Pave shoulders Parking Restrictions Provide additional parking Parking Widen shoulders on mainline and Allow parking on paved ramps shoulders and rampsb a - likely opposition by truck stop interest competitors b - risk of crashes and security

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65 Table 27. Highways--private-sector actions. Constraint Constraint Type Potential Action Type Potential Action Use of alternate routes Reschedule trip/delivery Deploy in-cab communication Add equipment/drivers/ resources Hire drivers Seek regulatory Higher pay for drivers changes operating in congested areas Physical and Report inefficiencies Operate less-than-full-load Regulatory Operational to government trucks agencies Incentives for off-peak period operations Facilitate data exchange between shippers and motor carriers Incentives to customers to maximize use of trailer capacity decision makers in selecting proven strategies to overcome the ding improvement options for the rail and water modes, effects of mobility constraints while achieving acceptable pro- respectively. ductivity levels. The constraints and corresponding improvement options For rail and water modes, operational constraints are more presented in these tables together with the detailed imple- prominent than physical and regulatory constraints. For rail, mented project information contained in the database are inte- data were derived from implemented projects in Alaska, gral components of the methodology described in the next Arizona, Illinois, North Carolina, Missouri, and Washington. chapter. Also these options are described in greater detail in the Tables 28 and 29 summarize the constraints and correspon- catalog of improvements later in this report.

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66 Table 28. Railroads--improvements. Physical Improvement Physical Improvement Options Constraint Options Constraint New track (siding) Extended siding track turnout Curve superelevation New siding track Realign tracks Inadequate Turnout Upgrade siding track Siding Capacity Realign tracks Extended siding Centralized traffic control track system Provide crossover Connection tracks Operational Connection tracks Improvement Options Constraint Centralized traffic Lack of Skilled Hire temporary workers Inadequate control system Labor Track Capacity Inefficient Labor Negotiate contracts to Branch line upgrades Utilization accommodate "limbo time" Tie replacement Remote switching Upgrade/reconfigure Switching Track surfacing interlocking, low-emission Conflicts/ switch engines Inefficient Advanced electronic Switching Coordinate operations of inspection Class I and short- techniques line/regional railroads Improve crossing warning systems and Centralized traffic control make current passive system crossings active Expansion of carload Outdated Signal improvements terminals Communication advanced technologies Inadequate and Signaling On-board and wayside Capacity of Internal gateway defect detection and other Yards and Port facilities advanced sensors Terminals Expansion of Trunked digital intermodal terminals communications systems

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67 Table 29. Deepwater ports and inland waterways--improvements. Operational Regulatory Improvement Options Improvement Options Constraints Constraints Supply Chain Smooth out mismatched Hire temporary labor Connectors labor structures Lack of Crews Labor Laws and Negotiate training terms Support labor union and Restrictive and conditions to training programs Contractual increase skills and Limitations trained labor supply Negotiate contract to Inefficient Labor Expanded gate hours accommodate "limbo Utilization time" Congestion pricing Trucking appointment TWIC Upgrade card readers system requirements and Automated yard lack of card- reading Use existing software marshalling and equipment packages for card inventory control readers Inefficiencies in Joint inspection facilities Operations of Establish flexible labor Physical Improvement Options Terminal shifts Constraints Yard/Gates Partnership to Rail Intermodal Expanded rail causing accommodate uneven Connector connections congestion and demand cycles Capacity delays Utilize wireless communications to facilitate proper storage, Widen local roads ship operations, gate Terminal operations Yard/Gates Incentive-based program Roadway to shift freight from Restriping to add lanes Connector trucks to rail High-speed gates/fast lane using paperless Auxiliary gate lanes checking Multi-pick cranes Terminal Synchronizing traffic Locate secured Yard/Gates lights inspection areas outside Roadway major traffic areas Connector Traffic management Capacity Inadequate Capacity of Fast rail shuttles Terminal Integrated maritime and Rail Intermodal Yard/Gates rail movements Terminal Connector Off-dock container yards reconfiguration to add Capacity Partnership to reduce capacity passenger/freight rail use conflicts