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78 characteristics (also shown in Figure 3). The traffic data and tion of improvements can be implemented depending on the congestion measures (indicated by volume/capacity ratios) for severity of the constraint or the physical conditions on site or these locations were derived from FAF2 traffic analysis data both. Note that these improvements are generic in the sense (58). The values shown in Table 30 represent maximum v/c that they are not designed to any specific site condition or loca- ratios and corresponding AADT and percentage of trucks in tion. This catalog is intended to serve as a guide and does not the fleet for the critical leg of each interchange. Table 30 also include any design details or specifications for implementation. shows the AADT for 2007 derived from the FAF provisional estimates. 7.2.2 Railroads The challenge in developing a catalog of low-cost physical improvements is the lack of specific site (geometric) data at Within the context of improving freight movement by rail, these locations. However, as noted previously, the func- the most urgent policy need does not appear to be investing in tional highway classes (i.e., urban interstates) where these expensive projects like double-tracking mainline rail freight top 30 bottlenecks and the locations (i.e., interchanges or corridors, expediting port access, and building new port ter- ramps) where the constraints typically occur are known. minal capacity, but rather smart investments to address per- Based on the knowledge of the location of the constraints, the sistent operational and site-specific weaknesses in the freight methodology was applied to identify the range of constraints transportation network. In developing a catalog of low-cost and then identify the applicable low-cost improvements for improvements, the first step is to identify locations or corri- each constraint. dors within the rail freight transportation system where major Table 31 presents the catalog of improvements to address bottlenecks occur whereby alleviating congestion at these freight mobility constraints encountered on the highway sys- locations would improve rail freight movement at the national tem. For each constraint, a single improvement or a combina- levels. For example, in 2007, the Alameda Corridor East and Table 31. Catalog of low-cost improvements for highway system constraints. Constraint Constraint Description Improvements Add auxiliary lane to connect an on-ramp and off-ramp Where traffic must merge across one or Extend/lengthen the existing turning lane more lanes to access entry or exit Add a dedicated turning lane at intersection Weaving ramps. Extend/lengthen the existing lane Occurs at closely spaced interchanges/ Redirect traffic i.e., replace exit ramp with entrance ramp from collector short acceleration lanes distributor to mainline lanes. Restriping i.e., re-mark pavement lanes to add more narrow lanes Where one or more traffic lanes are Add auxiliary lane to connect an on-ramp and off-ramp Lane Drop lost--typically at bridge crossings. Extend/lengthen the ramp Occurs on short ramps on interchanges Extend/lengthen the ramp length Extend/lengthen the acceleration and deceleration lanes Add a dedicated turning lane at intersection Physical Constraints Ramp metering--install traffic signals at freeway on-ramps to control the rate of vehicles entering the freeway Inability of freeway-to-freeway Realign/improve interchange layout and add ramps Inadequate interchanges and ramps to handle high Widen lane width on ramp Interchange/Ramp Capacity traffic volume merging and weaving. Install new traffic signal Occurs on short ramps, single-lane ramps, short deceleration lanes Add auxiliary lane to connect an on-ramp and off-ramp Reduce speed limit on ramp Install warning/advisory/navigational signs on ramps Improve existing road signs to reduce confusion or to warn the traffic Repaint pavement marking with fluorescent paint to separate traffic movement Restriping i.e., re-mark pavement lanes to add more narrow lanes Where steep uphill grade causes trucks Steep Grade to slow down causing delays to other Add a passing lane on steep grades traffic Remove ramp meter, i.e., remove traffic signal on ramp with steep grades Ramp metering on steep grades to Relocate ramp meter, i.e., relocate traffic signal on ramp to improve effectiveness Steep Grade with Ramp regulate access to urban freeways Meter resulting in queues and delays caused Alter ramp metering operation, i.e., reprogram traffic signal operation on ramp to by slow-moving trucks. provide exclusive lanes to bypass queue at ramp meter Modify median bull noses to facilitate turning movements

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79 Table 31. (Continued). Constraint Constraint Description Improvements Widen to improve turning radius Add a dedicated turning lane at intersection Turning radius at edge intersections too tight to permit easy entry and exit by Modify median bull noses to facilitate turning movements turning vehicles without encroaching on Widen and extend existing lane width Inadequate Turning Radii other lanes. Widen to improve turning radius Intersections urban arterials; Add a dedicated turning lane at intersection intermodal connectors Modify median bull noses to facilitate turning movements Widen and extend existing lane width Install warning/advisory/navigational signs Reduce speed limit on ramp Traffic demand exceeds mainline Provide alternative directions for alternative routes, e.g., use secondary roads capacity due to insufficient number of Improve existing road signs to reduce confusion or to warn the traffic lanes to handle traffic volume. Physical Constraints Inadequate Mainline Capacity Urban Interstates/urban principal Repaint pavement marking with fluorescent paint to separate traffic movement arterials. Restriping i.e., re-mark pavement lanes to add more narrow lanes Use beacons, advisory signs, etc. to implement revisions in merging and diverging areas Deploy technology to allow in-cab communication Add a dedicated turning lane at intersection Extend/lengthen the existing turning lane Widen the lane width Modify traffic signal phasing taking traffic volume in account Traffic demand exceeds intersection Install traffic signal at intersection Inadequate Intersection capacity; may be caused by outdated traffic signals, poor signal timing, or Upgrade existing traffic signal Capacity no dedicated turn lanes Widen pavement shoulder Extend existing turning lanes to accommodate traffic Improve existing road signs to reduce confusion or to warn the traffic Improve intersection layout to meet traffic demand and accommodate trucks Add auxiliary lane to connect an on-ramp and off-ramp Provide basic parking for trucks even if without amenities especially closer to Inadequate parking facilities along urban areas Insufficient Parking for highways and restrictions in central Trucks Widen and pave shoulders to allow trucks to park especially close to urban business districts areas Ramp metering on steep grades to Remove ramp meter, i.e., remove traffic signal on ramp with steep grades Steep Grade with Ramp regulate access to urban freeways Relocate ramp meter, i.e., relocate traffic signal on ramp to improve effectiveness Operational Constraints Meter resulting in queues and delays caused Alter ramp metering operation, i.e., reprogram traffic signal operation on ramp to by slow-moving trucks provide exclusive lanes to bypass queue at ramp meter Poor road signage, i.e., graphics created Improve existing road/navigational signs to reduce confusion or to warn the Poor Road Signage/Lack traffic to display information to highway users of Warning Signs in order to warn or inform Provide warning/advisory and/or navigational signs Upgrade existing traffic signal to accommodate traffic demand Lack of, or poor , traffic control system Install new traffic signal system Poor Traffic System including a condition where signal Management timing does not meet traffic Modify signal phasing taking traffic volume into account requirements Synchronize closely placed traffic signals for traffic to receive right of way simultaneously during one or more intervals Lack of Traveler Lack of or limited traveler information Improve existing or provide traveler information Information provided to trucks Use variable message signs to provide traveler information Develop and implement loading comprehensive zone plan that considers truck delivery and pickup Constraints Regulatory Where regulatory controls restrict Implement metered freight loading zones in designated areas Truck Restrictions in access to central business district In high freight activity locations, add loading zone "hot spots" Central Business District during certain times of the day or Designate locations with on-street parking away from loading zones restrict parking in certain sections Discourage peak-hour loading/unloading through increased parking violation fines during peak periods Increase enforcement activities for automobiles parking in docking areas

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80 the double-tracking of Union Pacific's Sunset Route from 3. Railways, ports, and inland waterways freight projects, El Paso to Colton, California, were recognized as projects of especially those thought to exhibit "national value," are national significance by virtue of their location within the rail likely to be "high cost, multi-year" initiatives, rather than network and their contribution to rail freight movement (90). activities that are "low cost, quickly implementable" in Also, the Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation scope. Efficiency (CREATE) program assembles a number of proj- ects of importance to multiple railroads, Metra, and Amtrak A recent study (45) on the rail freight capacity identified the in the Chicago area with the stated goals of not only reducing major rail bottlenecks within the rail network. Figure 29 shows rail and motorist congestion, but also improving passenger the locations of some of the major bottlenecks and corridors. rail service, enhancing public safety, promoting economic Table 32 shows the characteristics of some improvement pro- development, creating jobs, and improving air quality (29). grams and projects that are either under way or planned for For railroads, deepwater ports, and inland waterways, the these bottlenecks. These programs are joint public and private catalog of low-cost improvements that can be quickly imple- stakeholder cooperative initiatives with the primary objectives mentable is difficult to develop for the following main reasons: of reducing congestion and delays on rail and highways, improving efficiency in freight and passenger mobility, enhanc- 1. In most cases, operators of freight services over railroad ing safety, and reducing air emissions. networks, at railroad-owned network links, at port termi- Information gathered through literature reviews, interviews, nals, and along inland waterway networks are private and survey of stakeholders indicate that some of the most firms answering to their shareholders, not Federal or state severe and persistent rail freight mobility constraints include agencies. They have different funding criteria and market the following: incentives from those more familiar to state transportation departments. Outdated communication and signaling systems including 2. Estimating the "national value" of freight mobility de- signaling restrictions bottlenecking is terra incognita for private network investors Switching inefficiency including conflicts for mixed-speed and operators. Benefit calculations for these firms would operation on single or dual tracks feature private returns, not social benefits or external Inadequate sidings to accommodate train lengths economies and diseconomies. Inadequate capacity of yards and port terminals. Figure 29. Major chokepoints in rail freight network (45).

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81 Table 32. Characteristics of some improvement programs in freight rail system. Corridor/ Chokepoint Characteristics Program Characteristics Bottleneck Chicago (29) 6 Class I railroads CREATE Program 1,200 trains a day (500 freight, 700 Federal/state/city/public-private partnership-- passenger) $1.5 billion 37,500 rail cars processed daily 78 rail and highway capacity improvement 3,200 daily truck trips projects, e.g., switches, interlocking, 74 marshalling yards communication systems Reduce delays to passenger and freight rail and enhance safety Los Angeles 2 Class I railroads and 4 short-line Alameda corridor (90) serving ports of Los Angeles and Long Public-private partnership--$2.4 billion Beach 20-mile freight expressway connecting inland 6 major rail-truck intermodal railyards to ports transshipment yards Results in 35 train movements per day average 3 inland railyards 200 at-grade crossings eliminated Congestion at Los Angeles and Long Reduce congestion at Los Angeles and Long Beach ports Beach ports Seattle and Intermodal capacity constraints at Port FAST Corridor Tacoma ports of Seattle, Washington Public-private coalition invested $568 million access (90, Short switching leads crossing busy Improve BNSF yard operations 91) streets at grade; short staging tracks Signal improvements Terminal access problems to Port of Add sidings to improve track capacity Tacoma Expand yard switching capacity Inadequate yard capacity Carload consolidation facility Seattle to Portland freight/passenger train conflicts Houston region Class I and regional railroads Freight route consolidation project (92) 5 rail yards $3.3 billion improvements to reduce congestion Delays to road traffic at-grade crossings especially at highway-railway crossings Construction of several grade separations Improvements in capacity and railroad connectivity NS Crescent Significant highway congestion along Multi State/Federal/Public-Private Partnership-- Corridor route $2 billion (North Jersey 20-30% of AADT are trucks Increase capacity of mainline and yards to New 2,200 miles Upgrade existing rail facilities--28 new and Orleans) (93) Serving 46 ports faster trains; new locomotive engines and rail Long-haul intermodal services cars; and new terminals Decreasing mainline capacity due to: Reduce transit time by 24 hours between - Limitations on handling 286,000 lb Hampton Roads, VA and Midwest - Railcar availability Divert 1 million (or 30%) trucks off highway - Dispatching problems every year Heartland Currently, double-stack trains must take NS Heartland Corridor Corridor longer routes by way of Harrisburg, PA, Multi-state/Federal/public-private partnership or Knoxville, TN. (VA Port Authority, NS railroad, VA, WV, and (Port of Delay to intermodal freight movement OH)--$311 million Norfolk to between the East Coast and the Increase intermodal freight capacity Midwest) (93) Midwest. Tunnel clearances for high-speed double-stack intermodal service from major Atlantic port to Ohio and Chicago intermodal hubs 200-mile route reduction Reduced transit time by 24 hours between East Coast and Midwest Reduced shipping costs by about $500 per cargo container Mid-Atlantic 10-20% of AADT on I-95 corridor are I-95 Coalition (VA, MD, DE, PA and NJ) Rail (94) trucks Multi-state $6.2 billion target investment over 20 250 million tons of freight in and out of years region annually 71 infrastructure and information system 100 million tons of freight through improvements region annually 27 trains per day North-South Several choke points along corridor: inadequate connections between rail lines; congested grade crossings, stations and terminals; outmoded and inadequate information and communication systems