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82 As noted in Table 32, rail capacity improvements gener- of CREATE improvements. The results are increased move- ally require large capital investments and such projects do ments in and out of the yard and increased train lengths not satisfy the criteria for low-cost improvements. However, at the connection with NS and CSXT from 5,400 feet elements of such large improvement programs are amenable to 8,000 feet. Train speeds through the interlocking are to low-cost actions and have significant improvements in increased, and the speed of interchanges between BNSF and freight mobility. Furthermore, these actions can be imple- its partner railroads is improved (29). mented anywhere on the rail network to address freight mobility constraints, especially at major choke points. The The examples of low-cost improvements described for the second step therefore is to identify improvements that can CREATE projects and similar actions that have been proven be implemented alone or as part of major improvements. to be effective in addressing rail freight mobility constraints For example, the CREATE program assembles a number of and have the potential for nationwide applicability are projects that are designed to improve freight and passenger included in the catalog presented in Table 33. These actions train as well as highway traffic movements. Projects under are derived from applying the methodology to different pos- this program that could be classified as low-cost improve- sible scenarios focusing on those applicable to the top bottle- ments are: necks of the freight transportation system. The strategies are aligned to the constraints that they have been deployed to CREATE Project EW-4: BRC/NS Signal Upgrade--This address. project upgraded the Belt Railway Company of Chicago (BRC) and Norfolk Southern (NS) signal systems to 7.2.3 Deepwater Ports and power switches and signals along a segment of track. The Inland Waterways result is increased train speed from 10 to 20 miles per hour; this segment now can handle twice the number The occurrence of a freight mobility constraint at a deep- of trains, an increase from 23 to 46 freight trains per water port terminal or an inland waterway system is deter- day (29). mined to a large extent by freight demand and capacity of the Deval Interlocking Replacement--The Deval interlocking facility to handle existing demand. In identifying the deep- machine in Des Plaines, Illinois, where several rail lines cross water ports that experience congestion and other freight mobil- was replaced to improve operations by allowing the opera- ity constraints, the volume of freight passing through each tor to remotely view the entire interlocking area on a com- port measured by the tonnage of freight handled is used to puter screen (29). indicate the probable severity of mobility constraints. Table 34 CREATE Project WA-5: Upgrade and Reconfigure Cor- shows the ranking of the top 25 ports in the United States for with Interlocking and Remote CN Corwith Tower--This 2008 (95). Figure 30 shows the locations of these ports and project installed a new signal bridge at Corwith Yard as part tonnage of freight handled based on 2006 data (96). Table 33. Catalog of low-cost improvements for rail system. Constraint Constraint Description Improvements Upgrade or reconfigure interlocking-- Interlocking is an arrangement of signal apparatus that prevents conflicting movements through an arrangement of tracks such as junctions or Inefficient and inadequate crossings. Switching Conflicts/ switching and conflicts causing Operational Constraints Inefficient Switching delays to trains Implement remote switching Coordination of Class I operations with short- line/regional railroad operations to optimize joint operations and expedite switching traffic at interchanges. Centralized Traffic Control System--use of electrical circuits in tracks to monitor locations of trains, allowing remote control of train movements from a central dispatching office. Outdated Old and outdated Signal improvements deploy advanced Communication and communication and signaling technologies to improve signaling system Signal System systems Implement on-board and wayside defect detection and other advanced sensors Implement trunked digital communications systems

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83 Table 33. (Continued). Constraint Constraint Description Improvements Extend siding track to accommodate longer trains Provide new siding track long enough to accommodate train lengths Provide turnout to enable trains to be guided from one track to another at a railway junction Realign tracks to ensure smooth ride and Inadequate Siding Lack of, or inadequate, passing increased speed Capacity siding to allow efficient train Physical Constraints movement Upgrade siding track to accommodate all trains using track Provide connection tracks Centralized Traffic Control System--use of electrical circuits in tracks to monitor locations of trains, allowing remote control of train movements from a central dispatching office. Expand carload terminals to add capacity Inadequate Capacity Expand intermodal terminals to add more of Yards and Port Inadequate rail and port capacity Terminals terminals as well as Maximize infrastructure and equipment or inefficiencies in terminal utilization through cooperative competitor operations causing delays to arrangements for port terminal operations Inefficient Yard trains and trucks Operations Coordinate operations with feeder services, e.g., short-line or regional railroads, to optimize joint operations Maximize infrastructure and equipment utilization through route sharing and directional flows two competitive company's routes coordinated and operated directionally Advanced electronic inspection techniques to speed up inspection activities Tie replacement to improve train speed Track surfacing or putting the rails and track in a uniform plane (usually includes lining and gauging) is remedy to correct irregular track surface, with sags, low joints, bent rails, and short depressions and humps in the roadbed. Improve crossing warning systems and make Physical Constraints current passive crossings active Physical characteristics of Provide turnout or switch i.e., mechanical tracks to handle train traffic installation enabling trains to be guided from one Inadequate Track track to another at a railway junction. and causing delays to trains Capacity due to slow speeds and Realign tracks to ensure smooth ride and resulting increased trip time increased speed Provide crossover i.e., a pair of switches that connects two parallel rail tracks, allowing a train on one track to cross over to the other Curve Superelevation correct or provide superelevation in curves to enhance safe speed Maintenance of way (MOW) optimize scheduling of track work windows MOW-seasonal "blitz" to coordinate multiple "out-of-face" projects with dedicated equipment and track forces Relocate crew change points and re-schedule trains to improve safety, hours-of-service compliance, and customer service Remove capping of returns/provide incentives Constraints Regulatory Lack of funding (public and for investments Limited Funding/ private) to support and ensure Fear of Regulation efficient operation or expand Investment tax credit capacity Encourage public-private partnerships Provide access to public funding

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84 Table 34. Top 25 ports in terms of tonnage (2008) (95). Domestic Foreign Total % of National Rank Port Name (thousand tons) (thousand tons) (thousand tons) Total 1 Port of South Louisiana, LA 112,550 111,437 223,987 8.7% 2 Houston, TX 65,808 146,400 212,208 8.2% 3 New York, NY and NJ 62,379 91,101 153,480 5.9% 4 Long Beach, CA 12,934 67,271 80,205 3.1% 5 Corpus Christi, TX 21,431 55,355 76,786 3.0% 6 New Orleans, LA 36,530 36,481 73,011 2.8% 7 Beaumont, TX 22,688 46,796 69,484 2.7% 8 Huntington-Tristate 69,335 0 69,335 2.7% 9 Mobile, AL 29,524 38,111 67,636 2.6% 10 Port of Plaquemines, LA 35,813 27,931 63,744 2.5% 11 Los Angeles, CA 6,875 52,913 59,788 2.3% 12 Lake Charles, LA 22,012 31,766 53,778 2.1% 13 Texas City, TX 13,896 38,710 52,606 2.0% 14 Baton Rouge, LA 35,909 15,901 51,810 2.0% 15 Duluth-Superior, MN and WI 30,333 15,009 45,342 1.8% 16 Norfolk Harbor, VA 7,707 36,886 44,593 1.7% 17 Baltimore, MD 12,454 30,959 43,413 1.7% 18 Pittsburgh, PA 41,837 0 41,837 1.6% 19 Tampa, FL 26,296 13,380 39,676 1.5% 20 Paulsboro, NJ 12,482 23,870 36,352 1.4% 21 Valdez, AK 35,967 0 35,967 1.4% 22 Savannah, GA 1,839 33,555 35,394 1.4% 23 Pascagoula, MS 9,453 24,137 33,590 1.3% 24 Philadelphia, PA 11,960 20,323 32,283 1.3% 25 Port Arthur, TX 10,005 21,748 31,753 1.2% As noted earlier, the following freight mobility constraints funded by private industry. It is also recognized that each port are identified as often encountered at the port terminals: is unique where improvements at one location may not neces- sarily yield similar results at another port. Inadequate terminal capacity Table 35 presents examples of programs that have been Physical barriers to rail operations implemented to improve freight mobility and reduce con- Empty container storage and movement gestion at some deepwater ports. These programs are prima- Inadequate local street and highway access from terminal rily operational or technological actions designed to reduce Inadequate waterway or channel depths congestion and delays to trucks and improve efficiency in Inefficient terminal layout or terminal operations container movements to and from the ports. Some programs Loss of communication on inland waterways in rural areas. are incentive-type programs designed to influence demand and consequently reduce the impacts on congestion. These These constraints occur "on the terminal" and "outside the strategies are of national value because, potentially, they can gate." Actions satisfying the criteria of low-cost and quickly be implemented at any port in the country with similar implementable improvements and which might be of national results. significance would include operational/technology and regu- Table 36 shows the list of low-cost improvements to address latory oriented actions. Freight mobility improvement projects freight mobility constraints at deepwater ports and inland and programs for deepwater ports and inland waterways gen- waterways. These actions are derived from the database of erally involve large capital investments that invariably are implemented projects that underlies the methodology.

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85 Figure 30. Top 25 U.S. ports by tonnage--2006 (96). Table 35. Examples of programs with low-cost components. Where Program Summary of Program Implemented Incentive-based The PierPASS OffPeak program is a private-sector congestion pricing to Ports of Los Angeles initiative, incentive-based program to shift encourage off-peak and Long Beach, movement of international containers from peak movements, e.g., California weekday hours to evenings and weekends. PierPASS (38) ExpressRail--incentive program to encourage Incentive-based program shippers to use rail rather than trucks for moving Port Authority of to shift freight from cargo through the Port. The program pays $25 per New York/New trucks to rail, e.g., container shipped by rail to any ocean carrier that Jersey ExpressRail (97) increases the number of containers it transports over its 2008 levels. Maximize infrastructure Hampton Roads Container Pool II (HRCP-2), and equipment shipping lines provide chassis for the pool which utilization through are available for use by truck drivers who do not Norfolk, Virginia cooperative competitor have to switch chassis to haul for different shipping arrangements, e.g., lines. Chassis pool (98) Maximize infrastructure Union Pacific Railroad is shifting its domestic utilization through intermodal container business from the Port of Ports of Seattle and cooperative competitor Seattle's Argo Rail Yard to Tacoma, renting 10 Tacoma, arrangements, e.g., Rail acres of land across from the Port of Tacoma's Washington Yard Cargo Shift (99) South Intermodal Yard.

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86 Table 36. Catalog of low-cost improvements for deepwater ports. Constraint Constraint Description Improvements Extend gate operating hours Implement congestion pricing to discourage truck activity during peak periods (e.g., PierPASS) Incentive-based program to shift freight from trucks to rail (e.g., ExpressRail) Implement truck appointment system Implement automated yard marshalling and Layout of terminal yard inventory control restricting inefficient Inefficient terminal operations; inefficiencies Utilize joint inspection facilities layout/gate of terminal gate Establish flexible labor shifts operations operations causing Develop partnerships among stakeholders to congestion and delays at accommodate uneven demand cycles Operational Constraints the gates Utilize wireless communications to facilitate proper storage, ship operations, gate operations Maximize infrastructure and equipment utilization through cooperative competitor arrangements (e.g., Chassis pool) Deploy technologies to utilize high-speed gates/fast lane using paperless checking Use multi-pick cranes Implement traffic management system techniques Lack of, or poor, traffic at roadway connectors to ports (e.g., synchronizing Poor traffic control management system on traffic lights; improving signal phasing) at terminal road access to port yard/gates-roadway terminals, e.g., where Upgrade existing traffic signal to accommodate connections signal timing does not traffic demand meet traffic requirements Modify signal phasing taking traffic volume into account Use fast rail shuttles Inadequate rail Inadequate capacity of Integrate maritime and rail movements intermodal rail connectors to handle Off-dock container yards connector capacity train traffic Partnership to reduce passenger/freight rail use conflicts Labor laws and Restrictive labor laws restrictive and contractual Negotiate training terms and conditions to increase Constraints Regulatory contractual agreements that adversely skills and trained labor supply limitations impact labor supply TWIC requirements Implementation of Upgrade card readers and lack of card- security and safety Use existing off-the-shelf software packages for reading equipment measures card readers Locate secured inspection areas outside major traffic areas Constraints Physical Inadequate capacity Inadequate capacity of Terminal reconfiguration to add capacity of terminal terminal yard to meet yard/gates demand Maximize infrastructure utilization through cooperative competitor arrangements (e.g., Rail Yard Cargo Shift)