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A-1 APPENDIX A Methodology User Guide Welcome to the Low-Cost Definition of Freight Mobility Constraint Improvement Analysis Tool (LCIAT) In this methodology, a freight mobility constraint is gener- This document is a guide to using the methodology for iden- ally defined as: tifying and evaluating low-cost capital, operational, and reg- ulatory actions to address freight mobility constraints for the A physical or infrastructure deficiency, regulatory require- primary modes: highway, rail, and deepwater ports/inland ment (Federal, state, or local), or operational action that impedes or restricts the free flow of freight either at the network level or waterway. This User Guide is designed to help you use the Low- at a specific location. Cost Improvement Analysis Tool (LCIAT). The guide describes how the model works, and how you can use it to accomplish Mobility constraints increase costs, contribute to system your objectives. inefficiencies, and delay on-time freight delivery. Examples of the three types of constraints are: The Analysis Tool Physical Constraints--inadequate capacity of the transporta- Freight mobility is constrained not only by physical infra- tion system (e.g., mainlines, interchanges, port terminal structure inadequacies but also by operational, regulatory, connectors, rail sidings); geometric restrictions or limitations policy, technological, and financial limitations. Federal, state, affecting efficient mobility and local transportation agencies' ability to invest in system Operational Constraints--events or occurrences that con- expansion and new system technology has been signifi- strain legal operating speeds; poor signal phasing; terminal cantly constrained by inadequate revenue. There are oppor- switching inefficiency; restricted terminal gate operating tunities to increase the capacity of existing freight networks hours; inadequate traveler information through innovative operational strategies, performance- Regulatory Constraints--safety and security requirements; improving regulatory and policy changes, and low-cost capi- truck restrictions; land use controls that restrict facility tal improvements. These factors have significantly increased expansion; air quality requirements; labor contractual interest in addressing freight mobility constraints through limitations. implementation of low-cost physical, operational, and reg- ulatory improvements. The methodology developed in this project provides a Criteria for Low-Cost Improvements structured approach to analyze freight mobility constraints A low-cost improvement that can be implemented quickly is: and identify appropriate low-cost improvements that can be quickly implemented. The methodology considers highway, An action that modifies existing geometry and/or operational rail, and water modes of freight movement. The methodology features of the freight transportation system and that can be is encapsulated in a software application tool designed to help implemented within a short period of time without extended disruption to traffic flow. Such an improvement may be phys- private- and public-sector decision makers to identify, cate- ical, operational, or regulatory, as long as it enables greater gorize, and evaluate quickly implementable, low-cost capital, throughput from existing facilities. These actions may be spot operational, and regulatory (or public policy) actions to reduce (location-specific) improvements or may be limited to short mobility constraints in the freight transportation system. sections of the physical infrastructure. Likewise, they may be

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A-2 Table A-1. Key features of low-cost and quickly implementable improvements. Quickly Mode Characteristics of Low-Cost Actions Implementable Less than $1 million Spot or location-specific improvements No environmental clearances necessary Highway No right-of-way acquisition Less than 1 year No special programming required Implementation at district lowest operation unit level (limited direct HQ oversight) Class I railroad $1 million to $10 million Less than 2 years Rail Regional railroad less than $2 million Less than 1 year Short-line railroad less than $500,000 Less than 6 months Less than $1 million Deepwater Essentially incentive-based programs to influence demand and changes in operational practices, and technology deployments Ports & Less than 2 years Inland Physical improvements coordinated with highway and rail Waterways projects within and outside the port terminals at links serving ports location-specific actions Uniqueness of each port acknowledged specific to a given supply chain process point, regulation, or selections. The methodology is designed to be data driven where mode; they may also affect multiple modes of freight movement. the database of implemented improvements can be updated Low-cost improvements do not involve massive reconstruction and expanded as new project information becomes available. of infrastructure that usually takes many years to complete. The overall framework of the methodology is depicted in Key features of the criteria are summarized in Table A-1. Figure A-1. Framework of Methodology About this Program The methodology is designed to be a simple application LCIAT is a Microsoft Windows application that allows the tool where decision makers make selections to define the con- user to characterize freight mobility constraints on the high- straint and select possible actions to address it based on pre- way, rail, or deepwater ports and inland waterway modal sys- viously implemented improvements elsewhere. The user can tems and select suitable low-cost improvements to address review the characteristics of examples where the actions had them. Figure A-2 shows the flash screen of the program. been implemented or proposed. Examples are intended to The program also allows the user to compare alternative validate improvements and to guide users in making suitable improvement options and to view details of examples of imple- PHYSICAL EVALUATE Evaluate Improvement Actions MODE IMPROVEMENTS H i g hwa y Weaving Auxiliary lane Characterize Constraint Rail Turning radii SELECTION Widen lane Select Improvement Identify Constraints Deepwater ports Ramp meter & inland Re-striping waterway OPERATIONAL Switching conflicts Upgrade signals Terminal yard Etc. inefficiency CONSTRAINT COMPARE EXAMPLES RESOURCES TYPE Project #1 Physical REGULATORY Project #2 Parking restrictions Project #3 Links to Operational La b or la ws Project #n documents Regulatory Definition of Definition of Definition of constraint type constraint improvement action Figure A-1. Framework of the methodology.

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A-3 Figure A-2. LCIAT flash screen. mented low-cost improvement projects that address specific constraints. The program offers the user the option to use the wizard-style interface to navigate through the program using Figure A-3. Introductory window. the "Next" and the "Back" buttons or query the database directly based on user-designed criteria. 2. Unzip the contents of the .zip file; The tool is entirely data driven where only information 3. Double click on the file named "setup.exe" to install the available in the database can be selected or displayed. The program; database was populated with data on implemented low-cost 4. Designate or create a sub-directory on your computer improvement projects. The data were gathered from state where the software will be installed (or it will be installed in DOTs, railroad companies, and deepwater port terminal and C:\Program Files\Battelle\Low Cost Improvement Analysis inland waterway operators. The database can be updated as Tool); and new data are gathered. 5. Double click on the file named "LCIAT.exe" to start the program. System Requirements The following software must be installed to your computer: Running the Program Microsoft .NET Framework 2.2 Figure A-3 shows the introductory screen that states the Microsoft Data Access Components (MDAC) 2.8 purpose of the tool (top window) and defines low-cost and quickly implementable improvements (lower window). Both are included on the program CD and can also be down- loaded from the Internet. Wizard vs. Query Hardware System Requirements: The program allows the user to select the desired approach CD-ROM drive 1 GB RAM to running the program (Figure A-4). Two options are avail- 1 GHz processing speed able. The wizard approach allows the user to characterize the 100 MB of hard drive space constraint under consideration and then select from a list of improvements that can be used to address that constraint Operating System Requirement: based on experiences elsewhere. The query approach allows Windows 2000, Windows XP (Professional or Home Edi- the user to search the database of projects based on user- tion), or Windows Vista software. defined criteria without having to navigate the entire program. The steps in using these two approaches are described in Installation the following sections. The CD containing the software application includes an exe- Wizard--Mode Selection cutable program. To install and run the program: When using the wizard approach, the next screen (Fig- 1. Download or copy the .zip file from the CD into the sub- ure A-5) allows the user to select the freight transportation directory; mode of interest and the subcategory under the selected mode:

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A-4 Figure A-6. Constraint evaluation. Figure A-4. Navigation method. tion of the constraint on the modal network selected, the cor- Deepwater ports and inland waterways subcategories responding examples of constraints organized by type are dis- are "on terminal," "outside the fence," and "waterside." played on the right-hand side of the screen. Clicking on a dif- Highways subcategories are the major functional classes ferent type of constraint in the window titled "Constraint of the highway system e.g., Interstates, urban and rural Type" (in the lower left section of the screen) displays the cor- principal arterials, and local roads. responding examples of constraints in the window to the right. Railroads subcategories are Class I, regional, and local This feature allows the user to explore the various options operators. depending on the type of constraint. Moving or hovering the cursor over each of the constraint Wizard--Constraint Evaluation types--physical, operational, and regulatory (lower left window)--or over the corresponding constraints (in right Once the mode and the subcategory are selected, the next window) displays the definitions in popup windows. These screen displays the possible locations where freight constraints definitions are provided to guide the user to evaluate the con- on the modal network can occur based on information con- straints properly. tained in the database (Figure A-6). Depending on the loca- Wizard--Improvements Selection The top window in the next screen displays the criteria for "low-cost and quickly implementable" improvements specific to the mode selected. The lower windows display the types of improvements (physical, operational, regulatory) and the corresponding list of improvement options aligned to the constraint selected on the previous screen. The list represents improvements that have been implemented elsewhere to address the constraints identified in the previous screen. The improvements are also organized by type of improvement (physical, operational or regulatory). For example, Figure A-7 shows the list of physical improvement options to address the constraint selected on the previous screen. Wizard--Evaluating Improvement Projects By clicking the improvements of interest, the user can go to Figure A-5. Mode selection. the next screen to view and compare details of projects that have

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A-5 Figure A-7. Improvement selection. Figure A-8. Evaluation of options. been implemented to address the particular constraint. Multi- Ending Program ple selections are possible by holding down the "CTRL" key. The middle window on this screen (Figure A-8) shows the Regardless of which approach is being used, clicking on the "Cancel" button takes the user back to the approach selection list of assigned numbers for implemented improvements screen (Figure A-2). The rationale is to allow the user to begin contained in the database. Moving the cursor over the proj- another search, if desired. Clicking on the "Finish" button ends ect number in the middle window displays the description of the program. the project as shown in Figure A-8. The lower window on this screen displays the hierarchy of selections made on the previous screens that led to the applica- Additional Information ble projects. This window also displays other project details and Technical Support such as descriptions of the project, cost, duration, performance Questions about the tool can be addressed to measures, location, and lessons learned. The user evaluates the selected option by comparing the details of the projects. Dr. William C. Rogers 202-334-1621 Wizard--Links Senior Program Officer For each project, a link is provided to relevant project doc- National Cooperative Freight Research Program uments and other sources of further information. Clicking on Transportation Research Board the "links" displays the document containing detailed infor- 500 Fifth Street NW mation on the project of interest (Figure A-8). Washington, DC 20001 Query--Search Criteria Dr. Edward Fekpe This approach allows the user to select the database query 614-424-5343 criterion (Figure A-4). Clicking "Next" displays the list of Research Leader projects satisfying the condition (Figure A-8). As for the wiz- Battelle ard approach, the user can then view and evaluate the proj- Transportation Division ects and also access the sources of detailed information by 505 King Avenue clicking on the "links" button. Columbus, Ohio 43201