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60 cure a wheelchair appropriately. Lifting the wheelchair maintenance workers. The tests are designed by occu- manually is not required. pational medicine professionals based on the physical requirements of the jobs in question, including direct D. King County Metro Transit544 observation of employees. They cover such abilities as King County Metro Transit, Seattle (http://metro. strength, bending, and stooping. The purpose of the, had required a transit operator pre- tests is to ensure that applicants have the physical ca- employment work test (now discontinued for budgetary pacity to perform basic job functions; the failure rate reasons) as part of its preemployment physical. The test has been extremely low. included a series of tasks related to essential job func- For example, the Essential Function Test for Bus tions. The tasks replicated or simulated actual work Operators consists of 10 tasks performed on equipment tasks. For example, the test included a treadmill test used to simulate various essential job functions: grip that simulated the walk from job check-in to the bus, strength, simulating the grip strength required to drive, carrying a wheel block and securing it behind a tire, steer, and use hand controls; pinch strength, simulating doing a trolley pulley and crank simulation, and walk- pinch strength required to operate controls, punch ing for 60 ft in less than 18 seconds to simulate the task transfers, punch buttons, flip controls; range of motion, of being able to walk the length of the bus. simulating flexibility required to sit, stand, reach, ro- The work test had a low failure rate, estimated be- tate neck, and use foot pedals while operating the vehi- tween 0.5 and 0.75 percent of applicants. It is also esti- cle; motion test, simulating repetitive use of left hand mated that if the work test avoided one workers' com- and wrist to open and close bus door; climbing 12-in. pensation claim, that reduction would pay for at least 3 step, 20 repetitions, simulating climbing into and out of years of work tests. bus; timed foot reaction, simulating eye and foot coordi- The agency currently requires performance-based nation and speed required to drive bus and stop quickly physical capacities evaluations (PBPCEs)545 when there in emergency; bend/squat/kneel with wheelchair, simu- is an objective concern about an employee's ability to lating postures required to secure a wheelchair; physically perform required job functions. The PBPCE sit/rotate/lean/reach, simulating posture required to is conducted by a medical professional contracted by the drive, watch for traffic, reach controls, and operate bus; agency. The need for a PBPCE is made on a case-by- depress/hold brake pedal, simulating strength required case determination, based on a quantifiable observation to operate foot controls; and grasp and turn steering by the employee's supervisor concerning the safety of wheel, simulating driving. The test administrators the employee's job performance. The agency's Transit demonstrate the tasks before applicants are required to Disability Services office and legal counsel must clear a perform them. Some of the tasks, such as the wheel- request for a PBPCE to ensure compliance with legal chair secure, allow for an unrecorded practice trial. requirements and the agency's collective bargaining LTD also requires a fitness-for-duty exam for em- agreement. Unlike the work test, the PBPCE process ployees returning to work from a non-work-related in- applies to all job categories. jury after more than 30 days, where the injury is such that it might affect physical ability to perform essential E. Lane Transit District546 job functions. Back, shoulder, or neck injuries are the Lane Transit District (LTD), Eugene, Oregon major triggering injuries. The fitness-for-duty exam (, includes strength and agility tests as includes the physical ability test required for job appli- part of its preemployment physical for bus driver, me- cants. These exams are intended to screen for problems chanics, general service workers, cleaners, and facilities that might result in subsequent workers' compensation claims. In the case of work-related injuries, the doctor's 544 release to return to work is deemed sufficient. Information is based on telephone interviews with Peter Hu, Transit Disability Services, King County Metro Transit F. LA Metro547 Human Resources, Nov. 6, 2009, and Dec. 3, 2009, as well as a review of the physical capacities evaluation (PCE) form. LA Metro ( uses a BOCAT 545 The agency requires a PCE upon return from medical for bus operator trainee candidates whose physical leave for physical injury. The PCE is an evaluation performed exam results indicate they may have some difficulty by the employee's physician. The PCE is based on a form de- with various physical requirements for operating the veloped by the Washington State Department of Labor and bus, such as adjusting mirrors, having sufficient field of Industry for workers' compensation claims. The form covers a vision, and being able to safely turn the steering wheel. number of physical movements, such as sitting, standing, The BOCAT is required for candidates with a BMI bending, stooping, and reaching to various heights. The physi- equal to or greater than 35 percent, who are 5 ft 2 in. cian evaluates whether the employee has any restrictions in and shorter or are 6 ft 3 in. and taller. The assessment performing the various movements covered by the PCE. The agency then compares the PCE to the employee's job analysis to determine whether the employee can resume full job func- 547 This summary is based on LA Metro's response to the tions. TCRP Questionnaire, the agency's written description of the 546 Information is based on a telephone interview with David BOCAT and rail operator tests, and telephone conversations Collier, LTD Human Resources, Nov. 9, 2009, and a review of a with Mary Nugent and Rosalin Chong in LA Metro's Human description of the testing provided by LTD. Resources Department on November 10, 2009.