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61 evaluates seat adjustment; operator positioning (includ- G. Metro Transit549 ing whether the candidate can perform various required Metro Transit, Minneapolis (www.metrotransit.org/), maneuvers without the candidate's torso touching the does not conduct nonmedical, functional, preemploy- steering wheel); candidate performance (including ment testing of candidates' physical capacity to perform maintaining appropriate position while performing essential job functions. The agency formerly conducted tasks such as activating floor pedals and signals and preemployment agility testing for bus operators, requir- releasing and applying handbrake); bus interior inspec- ing candidates to get in the seat, deploy the wheelchair tion (including manually lifting the wheelchair ramp in lift, put a wheelchair on the lift, and perform other driv- and out on a low-floor bus); and bus exterior inspection ing maneuvers. The test was not considered cost effec- (including operating the bike rack and kneeling down tive and has been discontinued. The agency does in- and returning to standing position for required inspec- clude upper extremity and back screening as part of its tion of fuel tank and underbody). To date this test has post-offer preemployment physical exam. In addition, been challenged in court, unsuccessfully.548 the agency's USDOT physical now includes screening LA Metro also requires applicants for rail opera- for obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep studies are recom- tional positions pass a rail physical agility test after a mended based on patient history or on meeting two of conditional offer of employment is made. The assess- the following three criteria: BMI (35 or greater), neck ment covers the following abilities: circumference (43 cm or greater), and blood pressure (uncontrolled or controlled with two or more medica- · Enter rail vehicle at side door. tions). Presence of a sleep disorder, treated or un- · Exit rail vehicle from side door. treated, will affect the duration of the medical card is- · Enter rail vehicle at "F" end door from the ballast. sued by the agency. · Sit in operator's chair and operate various controls, The agency conducts fitness for duty exams as re- including adjusting seat. quired when an employee has been away from work for · Operate console controls while monitoring side door any condition that might affect safe job performance. activity. The examining physician, a board-certified occupational · Operate emergency door controls and cut out leer. medicine physician, refers to the employee's job descrip- · Manually operate track switches on mainline and tion in conducting the exam. yard. · Access emergency walkway from track level. H. Tri-Met550 · Open emergency exits from mainline underground Tri-Met, Portland (http://trimet.org/), requires appli- tunnel. cants for bus operator positions to pass a Bus Operator · Climb and descend emergency stairway. Work Demonstration Test, conducted after a conditional · Step over deenergized contact rail section. offer of employment is made. The test consists of 11 · Walk guideway without fear. tasks: adjusting the operator's seat, fastening the seat · Manually raise and lower pantograph. belt, maintaining proper back contact while grasping the steering wheel, properly turning the steering wheel, The candidate must also walk the enclosed tunnel properly depressing the brake and accelerator pedals, length to demonstrate lack of claustrophobia and fear of properly operating the turn signals, fully disengaging the dark. The instructor must demonstrate all tasks and engaging the parking brake, properly removing and before candidates perform them. The protocol provides returning the handset, identifying the color of object instructions for each task. Some of the instructions in- held 42 in. in front of the bus, properly opening the volve some judgment on the part of the instructor, such emergency window, and securing a wheelchair within 3 as requiring that the candidate demonstrate that the minutes, as demonstrated by the test administrator. task "can be done safely and repeatedly." The failure rate for this test, at least from 2006 to 2009, LA Metro requires a qualifying performance test for has been low to nonexistent. Current personnel are not mechanics and service attendants as part of the inter- aware of any challenges to the test. Tri-Met does not view process. The test measures lifting ability and have an equivalent preemployment work test for service technique. Applicants must sign a waiver. Both of those positions require 2 years of experience in relevant jobs, so candidates are expected to already have the skill being tested. The test requires applicants to lift a 50-lb 549 Based on telephone interview with Connie DeVolder, box and carry it for a prescribed distance. LA Metro has Human Resources Manager for Occupational Health, Metro- had a very low failure rate for this test. politan Council, Nov. 6, 2009, and email, Nov. 9, 2009; tele- phone interview with Julie Johanson, Deputy Chief Operating Officer, Nov. 2009. 550 Information is based on Tri-Met's response to the TCRP Questionnaire and telephone interviews with Dr. James Har- 548 See IV.B.2., Obesity, supra this digest. ris, contract provider of preemployment medical services for Tri-Met; Richard Alsos, Training Supervisor, Tri-Met Bus Transportation Department; and Carol Crossen, Tri-Met Hu- man Resources Representative.