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55 CHAPTER 5 Long-Term Data Collection Plan 5.1 General 7. Identify the relationship between impact angle and crash severity for longitudinal barriers. These data would con- The primary goal of the current study is to identify the dis- tribute to the refinement of B/C analysis tools that in turn tribution of impact conditions--including speed, angle, and would be useful in identifying optimum flare rates for vehicle orientation--of serious injury and fatal ran-off-road longitudinal barriers. crashes. However, there remain many other questions and 8. Identify the effects of curbs, ditches, and other terrain issues that need to be addressed, some of which are as follows: irregularities placed in front of safety hardware on the pro- bability of injury during a crash. 1. Identify distributions of impact conditions--including speed, angle, and vehicle orientation--as a function of This list of questions and issues is by no means exhaustive, highway functional class. These data would provide inputs but it serves to illustrate the many unanswered questions that for benefit/cost (B/C) analysis codes and development of can be addressed with in-depth crash data. The database cre- hardware performance-level selection guidelines. ated from the current study may provide answers to some of 2. Develop a link between occupant compartment deforma- these questions, but the sample size and the level of detail tion and occupant risk in ran-off-road crashes. These data would limit its applications. There remains a need for a long- would be helpful in establishing intrusion limits for crash term effort to collect in-depth data on single-vehicle, ran-off- testing guidelines. The magnitude and location of intrusion road crashes in a continuous and systematic manner. would need to be identified in order to establish reasonable This long-term data collection effort will require a sponsor- limits. ing agency with continuing funding sources. The sponsoring 3. Quantify the occupant risk associated with partial rollovers agency would ideally be national in scope and have sufficient by vehicle class. Large trucks are allowed to roll 90 degrees resources to provide the needed funding on a long-term basis. during a crash test, but the test is deemed a failure if a small One possible sponsoring agency is the FHWA. However, given car or a light truck rolls 90 degrees. Data correlating degree the situation with the research budget in recent years, it is of rollover with occupant injury would be helpful. unlikely that the FHWA will sponsor such a long-term data 4. Establish a link between impact conditions and probability collection effort. Another alternative is to establish a multi- of injury for common safety features and roadside hazards. state pooled fund study, similar to the Mid-States Pooled Fund These data would provide a link between crash conditions Program administered by the Nebraska Department of Roads. and accident severity that would be invaluable in refining While this is a viable approach, the required funding per year B/C analysis techniques. and the commitment for a long-term effort may be too much 5. Identify distribution of all vehicle trajectories. These data for individual states to handle. could be used to incorporate curvilinear paths into the The most logical choice is for AASHTO to sponsor the Roadside Safety Analysis Program (RSAP) and to develop effort and the program to be administered through NCHRP. guardrail length-of-need calculation procedures. There is no question that AASHTO and NCHRP have the 6. Identify the effects of roadside slopes on vehicle trajectories. required organization and resources to carry out this long- This information would contribute to the refinement of term data collection effort. For example, this current study B/C analysis tools and the development of length-of-need was requested by the AASHTO Technical Committee on calculations. Roadside Safety (TCRS) and administered through NCHRP.