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67 References 1. Lampela, A.A., and A.H. Yang, "Analysis of Guardrail Accidents in Procedures Manual," National Highway Traffic Safety Administra- Michigan," Report TSD-243-74, Michigan Department of State tion and Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Highways, 1974. Transportation, Washington, D.C., 1982. 2. Perchonok, K., T.A. Ranney, A.S. Baum, D.F. Morris, and J.D. 13. Mak, K.K., and A. Magaro, "National Accident Sampling System Eppich, "Methodology for Reducing the Hazardous Effects of High- (NASS) Luminaire and Sign Support Special Study Coding/Editing way Features and Roadside Objects," Final Report, Calspan Field and Field Procedures Manual," National Highway Traffic Safety Services, Inc., Buffalo, New York, 1978. Administration and Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Depart- 3. Mak, K.K., D.L. Sicking, and H.E. Ross, Jr., "Real-World Impact Con- ment of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 1982. ditions for Ran-Off-the-Road Accidents," Transportation Research 14. Erinle, O., W. Hunter, M. Bronstad, F. Council, R. Stewart, and Record 1065, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., K. Hancock, "An Analysis of Guardrail and Median Barrier Acci- January 1986. pp. 4555. dents Using the Longitudinal Barrier Special Studies (LBSS) File, 4. Ross, H.E., Jr., D.L. Sicking, R.A. Zimmer, and J.D. Michie, NCHRP Volume I: Final Report," Report No. FHWA-RD-92-098, Federal Report 350: Recommended Procedures for the Safety Performance Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Evaluation of Highway Features. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., February 1994. Washington, D.C., 1993. 15. Mak, K.K., and D.L. Sicking, "Rollover Caused by Concrete Safety 5. Sicking, D.L., K.K. Mak, J.R. Rohde, and J.D. Reid, "Manual on Shaped Barrier," Final report, prepared for Federal Highway Admin- Assessment of Safety Hardware," American Association of State istration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. (in September 1988. publication) 16. NCHRP Project 17-11, "Recovery-Area Distance Relationships for 6. "Roadside Design Guide," American Association of State Highway Highway Roadsides," ongoing study conducted by Texas Trans- and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. (1988, 1996, 2002, portation Institute, Texas A&M University System, College Station, and 2006). Texas. 7. Hutchinson, J.W., and T.W. Kennedy, "Medians of Divided 17. FHWA Contract No. DTFH61-00-C-00079, "Rollover Causation and Highways-Frequency and Nature of Vehicle Encroachments," Mitigation Study," ongoing study conducted by Texas Transporta- Engineering Experiment Station Bulletin 487, University of Illinois, tion Institute, Texas A&M University System, College Station, Texas. June 1966. 18. Gabler, H.C., D.J. Gabauer, H.L. Newell, and M.E. O'Neill, NCHRP 8. Garrett, J.W., and K.J. Tharp, NCHRP Report 79: Development of Web-Only Document 75: Use of Event Data Recorder (EDR) Tech- Improved Methods for Reduction of Traffic Accidents, HRB, National nology for Highway Crash Data Analysis, Transportation Research Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1969. Board of the National Academies, December 2004. 9. Mak, K.K., and R.L. Mason, "Accident Analysis--Breakaway and 19. Sicking, D.L. and H.E. Ross, Jr., "Benefit-Cost Analysis of Nonbreakaway Poles Including Sign and Light Standards along Roadside Safety Alternatives," Transportation Research Record 1065, Highway," Technical Report, Southwest Research Institute, San TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., January 1986. Antonio, Texas, August 1980. pp. 98105. 10. Mak, K.K., and L.R. Calcote, "Accident Analysis of Highway Narrow 20. Mak, K.K., R.P. Bligh, and L.I. Griffin, III, "Improvement of the Bridge Sites," Final Report, prepared for Federal Highway Adminis- Procedures for the Safety Performance Evaluation of Roadside Fea- tration and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. tures," Final report, NCHRP Project 22-14, Texas Transportation Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., February 1983. Institute, Texas A&M University System, College Station, Texas, 11. Mak, K.K., and A. Magaro, "National Accident Sampling System November 2000. (NASS) Longitudinal Barrier Special Study Coding/Editing and 21. Mak, K.K. and D.L. Sicking, NCHRP Report 492: Roadside Safety Field Procedures Manual," National Highway Traffic Safety Admin- Analysis Program (RSAP) Engineer's Manual, Transportation Re- istration and Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of search Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2003. Transportation, Washington, D.C., 1982. 22. Miaou, Shaw-Pin, "Estimating Roadside Encroachment Rates 12. Mak, K.K., and A. Magaro, "National Accident Sampling System With the Combined Strengths of Accident-And Encroachment- (NASS) Crash Cushion Special Study Coding/Editing and Field Based Approaches," Publication No. FHWA-RD-01-124, Federal

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68 Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 30. Holloway, J.C., D.L. Sicking, and B.T. Rosson, "Performance Eval- Washington, D.C., September 2001. uation of NDOR Mountable Curbs," Final report to the Nebraska 23. Daily, K., W.E. Hughes, and H.W. McGee, "Experimental Plans for Department of Roads, Report No. TRP-03-37-93, Midwest Road- Accident Studies of Highway Design Elements: Encroachment side Safety Facility, Civil Engineering Department, University of Accident Study," Report No. FHWA-RD-96-081, Federal Highway NebraskaLincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, June 1994. Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, 31. Ross, H.E., Jr., and D.L. Sicking, et al., "Safety Treatment of Road- D.C., January 1997. side Cross-Drainage Structures," Research Report 280-1, Texas 24. Eskandarian, A., G. Bahouth, K. Digges, D. Godrick, and Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, M. Bronstad, NCHRP Web-Only Document 61: Improving the Texas, March 1981. Compatibility of Vehicles and Roadside Safety Hardware, Trans- 32. Sicking, D.L., K.A. Lechtenberg, and S.M. Peterson, "Guidelines portation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, for Guardrail Implementation," Final report on NCHRP Project D.C., October 2004. 22-12, Report No. TRP-03-207-08, Midwest Roadside Safety Facil- 25. Mak, K.K., and J.J. Labra, "Development of Reconstruction Pro- ity, University of NebraskaLincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, Septem- cedure for Pole Accidents," Final report, prepared for National ber 2008. Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Trans- 33. Cooper, P., "Analysis of Roadside Encroachments: Single Vehicle portation, Washington, D.C., 1980. Run-off-Road Accident Data Analysis for Five Provinces," B.C. 26. Campbell, K.E., "Energy Basis for Collision Severity," SAE Paper Research, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, March 1980. 740565, Environmental Activities Staff, General Motors Corp., 34. McGinnis, R.G., "Reexamination of Roadside Encroachment Data," 1974. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research 27. "CRASH 3 Technical Manual," U.S. Department of Transporta- Board, No. 1690, TRB, National Research Council, Washington D.C., tion, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washing- 1999, pp. 4258. ton, D.C., 1979. 35. Coon, B.A., D.L. Sicking, and K.K. Mak, "Guardrail Run-Out Length 28. James, M.E., Jr., and H.E. Ross, Jr., "HVOSM User's Manual," Design Procedures Revisited," Transportation Research Record: Jour- Research Report 140-9, Study 2-10-69-140, Texas Transporta- nal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1984, Transportation tion Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. Research Board of the National Academies, Washington D.C., August 1974. January 2006, pp. 1420. 29. Ivey, D.L., D.L. Sicking, and H.E. Ross, Jr., "Rollover Velocity vs. 36. Wolford, D., and D.L. Sicking, "Guardrail Need: Embankments Roll Distance," Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M Uni- and Culverts," Transportation Research Record 1599, TRB, National versity, College Station, Texas, unpublished. Research Council, Washington D.C., December, 1997, pp 4856.