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Appendix: Survey Findings The following findings stated below summarize the responses received from a survey of 24 scientists and engineers in the United States, Canada, and Europe who are engaged in activities covering all aspects of coastal measurements discussed in this report. I. Coastal Engineers need to improve the spatial and temporal characteristics of their measurement programs. This should include, but not be licensed to, better area coverage and longer term moni- toring programs, as weD as measurements under specific conditions. These efforts are inhibited by: the high cost of equipment and logistics, the reliability of available equipment, and the available technology. 2. Remote sensing from land-based, airborne, and satellite sys- tems holds promise for meeting certain coastal engineering require- ments. However, there is no concerted effort to apply this technology to coastal engineering problems. 3. Coastal engineers have a better understanding of noncohe- sive sediment processes than cohesive sediment processes. Additional research needs to be directed toward cohesive sediment processes. 105
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106 4. Longshore and cross-shore sediment-transport processes are poorly understood. Direct rather than indirect measurement tech- niques are needed. Acoustic and laser technologies appear to hold promise, but need further development, testing, and evaluation. 5. High-resolution, deep-water, directional wave spectra mea- surements are required to support a number of coastal engineering requirements. These are not possible on a routine basis with available technology. Technological development is needed. 6. Coastal engineers have almost no measurements of impor- tant processes in the surf zone under storm conditions. This is an essential requirement that demands significant research and develop meet. 7. Coastal engineers can predict the environmental impact of coastal structures only under a few conditions. Beach replenishment and restoration are poorly understood. Little hard data are available, and recor~keeping is poor. 8. In recent years process-oriented experiments have improved our knowledge of important coastal processes (C2S2, NSTS, DUCK, SUPERDUCK). More emphasis needs to be placed on process- oriented experiments in various locations under various conditions. 9. More measurements of these coastal processes are needed: mean currents under wave conditions, wave-induced apparent stress, turbulent stress, wave trough vs. wave crest, and ~ longer term series. 10. Several other countries are active in coastal engineering re- search. Some are actively considering the issues of coastal engineer- ing measurement requirements (Canada and the United Kingdom). Efforts should be increased to foster the exchange of information. 11. Many coastal processes are poorly understood. Engineers and scientists need to work together to resolve important needs.