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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 40 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Airport Curbside and Terminal Area Roadway Operations

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (re- Governments, Arlington tired) VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg MEMBERS Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson James Crites Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, DallasFort Worth International Airport Norfolk, VA Richard de Neufville William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Massachusetts Institute of Technology Kevin C. Dolliole Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Unison Consulting Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, John K. Duval Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Austin Commercial, LP Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Kitty Freidheim Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Freidheim Consulting Steve Grossman Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Jacksonville Aviation Authority Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Tom Jensen Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City National Safe Skies Alliance Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Catherine M. Lang Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Federal Aviation Administration Gina Marie Lindsey Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Los Angeles World Airports Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Carolyn Motz Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Hagerstown Regional Airport Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Richard Tucker Authority, Atlanta, GA Huntsville International Airport David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Sabrina Johnson Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Richard Marchi Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI Airports Council International--North America C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Laura McKee Air Transport Association of America EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport Executives Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Robert E. Skinner, Jr. George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Transportation Research Board University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC SECRETARY Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Christopher W. Jenks Interior, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2010. *Membership as of July 2010.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 40 Airport Curbside and Terminal Area Roadway Operations LEIGHFISHER Burlingame, CA IN ASSOCIATION WITH DOWLING ASSOCIATES, INC. Oakland, CA JD FRANZ RESEARCH, INC. Sacramento, CA AND WILTEC Pasadena, CA Subscriber Categories Aviation Design Operations and Traffic Management Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 40 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 07-02 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-15512-0 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2010937921 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT INFORMATION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. they are considered essential to the object of the report. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 40 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager B. Ray Derr, Senior Program Officer Emily R. Greenwood, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor Doug English, Editor ACRP PROJECT 07-02 PANEL Field of Design Craig Leiner, Massachusetts Port Authority, East Boston, MA (Chair) Owen P. Curtis, HNTB Corporation, Arlington, VA Nathalie Martel, AECOM, Montreal, QC Scott S. Washburn, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Kum L. "Dan" Wong, American Planning Association, San Francisco, CA Chris Hugunin, FAA Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research discussed in this report was conducted under ACRP Project 07-02, "Airport Curbside and Terminal Area Roadway Operations," by a research team of recognized experts in airport planning and operations, traffic engineering, and transportation planning. LeighFisher (formerly Jacobs Consultancy) was the prime consultant. Peter B. Mandle, LeighFisher Director, was the Principal Investigator and W. Gavin R. Duncan, LeighFisher Principal Consultant, was the Deputy Principal Investigator. Other con- tributors from LeighFisher included Andrew Blaisdell, Dan Barton, and Tyler Tate, Consultants; and Mark Nagle, Principal Consultant. Dowling Associates was the primary subconsultant and led the research con- cerning roadway weaving analyses under the direction of Rick Dowling, President, and Marty Beene, Vice President. Senanu Ashiabor, a Dowling Associates Associate Engineer, also contributed. The focus groups of airline passengers were conducted by Jennifer D. Franz, President of JD Franz Research, Inc. The traf- fic surveys at Oakland, San Francisco, and Washington Dulles international airports were conducted by WILTEC under the direction of Moses Wilson, President. Faith Oiwa of LeighFisher coordinated the internal production and word processing of this report. Debra L. Lubin served as the technical editor. The research team would like to express its gratitude to the members of the Project Panel for their sup- port and insightful comments and advice throughout this research project. The research team would also like to thank the many airport staff members and consultants who took the time to review interim drafts of the Guide and provide their thoughts and comments. These reviewers included Foster de la Houassaye of Kimley-Horn Associates, Inc., and Joel Marcuson of Jacobs Engineering, both of whom served as sub- contractors; John Bergener of the City and County of San Francisco (San Francisco International Airport); Michael Hackett of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (Washington Dulles International and Reagan Washington National airports); Hugh Johnson of the Port of Oakland (Oakland International Airport); Keith B. Wilschetz of the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority (San Diego International Airport); James W. Green of AECOM; and M. Allen Hoffman of Ricondo & Associates, Inc.

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FOREWORD By B. Ray Derr Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This guide presents a cohesive approach to analyzing traffic operations on airport curbside and terminal area roadways. The guide describes operational performance measures and reviews methods of estimating those performance measures. A quick analysis tool for curb- side operations and low-speed roadway weaving areas is packaged with this guide. Techniques for estimating traffic volumes are presented as well as common ways of addressing operational problems. The guide should be useful to airport landside operators, transportation planners, and consultants analyzing airport curbside and terminal area roadway operations. Efficient and safe roadway operations are critical to an airport's success. Key elements of an airport's roadway operations are the curbside--where travelers and their baggage enter and exit the terminal--and the terminal area roadways that provide private and commercial vehicles access to the curbside as well as to other destinations such as parking. Travelers expect safe and efficient roadway operations even as volumes increase, but the design and capacity of the curbside are often constrained by the terminal building and the proximity of on-airport landside infrastructure. For more than 60 years, the Transportation Research Board's Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) has been the authoritative reference for estimating the capacity and determining the level of service for transportation facilities, including intersections and roadways. Over the decades, the HCM has grown to address additional types of facilities and better meet the needs of analysts. Although it now includes transit, bicycle, and pedestrian facilities, it does not address the unique challenges posed by airport transportation facilities. Some of these challenges are related to the tight geometrics due to limited space in the terminal area while others are due to the differences in traffic composition and traveler expectations. In this project, LeighFisher took the first step toward creating analysis guidance comparable to the HCM for airport curbside and terminal area roadways. They surveyed the largest U.S. and Canadian airports to obtain reports from recent landside analyses. They reviewed these reports to identify analysis methods and performance measures of interest, which were then critically reviewed. A conceptual model for analyzing curbside operations and low-speed weav- ing areas was then developed. Field data were collected for the development of a macroscopic queuing model for curbside operations and low-speed weaving areas. The research team then wrote the guide and validated it with the project panel and staff at two airports. The project panel believes that the guide will be practical and useful for conducting road- way analyses. The guide establishes a baseline for analysis based on the current state of the art but future additional research and experienced analysts will develop better analysis methods, much as they have for the HCM. These improvements can be incorporated into the analysis approach in the future.

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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Purpose, Methodology, and Organization of this Guide 1 Purpose of the Guide 1 Methodology 1 Organization of the Guide 3 Chapter 2 Framework for Analysis of Airport Roadways and Curbsides 3 Users of Airport Roadways 4 Types of Airport Roadways 7 Operating Characteristics of Airport Terminal Area Roadways 13 Overview of Analytical Framework Hierarchy 14 Overview of Capacity and Level-of-Service Concepts 16 Chapter 3 Estimating Airport Roadway Traffic Volumes 16 Establishing Existing Airport Roadway Traffic Volumes 17 Estimating Future Airport Roadway Traffic Volumes--Traditional Four-Step Approach 28 Estimating Future Airport Roadway Traffic Volumes--Alternative Approach 30 Chapter 4 Analyzing Airport Terminal Area Roadways 30 Level-of-Service Definitions for Airport Terminal Area Roadways 30 Quick-Estimation Methods for Analyzing Airport Roadway Operations 32 Macroscopic Method for Analyzing Airport Roadway Weaving Areas 39 Use of Microsimulation Methods 40 Other Performance Measures 41 Chapter 5 Evaluating Airport Curbside Operations 41 Performance Measures 42 Level-of-Service Definitions for Airport Curbside Roadways 43 Estimating Airport Curbside Roadway Traffic Volumes 45 Estimating Airport Curbside Roadway Capacity and Level of Service 50 Analytical Framework Hierarchy for Airport Curbside Roadways 57 Chapter 6 Improving Airport Curbside and Terminal Area Roadway Operations 57 Typical Terminal Area Roadway Problems 60 Potential Terminal Area Roadway Improvement Measures 63 Typical Curbside Roadway Problems 64 Potential Curbside Roadway Improvement Measures Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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70 Appendices 71 Appendix A Glossary