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1 CHAPTER 1 Purpose, Methodology, and Organization of this Guide ACRP Report 40: Airport Curbside and Terminal Area Road- through an extensive literature review and the performance of way Operations (the Guide) is intended to assist airport opera- more than a dozen focus groups of airline passengers, airport tors and others in analyzing airport terminal area roadway landside operators, and the drivers of commercial ground and curbside operations. The Guide presents guidelines for transportation vehicles serving airports. The definitions of estimating airport roadway requirements and capacities, rec- curbside and weaving area levels of service included in this ommended performance measures, valid and useful analytical Guide reflect the input and comments received during the methods, and potential measures to improve terminal area and focus group sessions. curbside roadway operations. Traffic volumes gathered during a week-long survey period at Oakland and Washington Dulles International Airports Purpose of the Guide were used to develop and validate new macroscopic models for analyzing and evaluating airport curbside roadway operations This Guide is intended for use by three primary user groups. and low-speed weaving, as described in this Guide. The draft The first user group consists of airport operators, including the Guide and the macroscopic models were reviewed by represen- staff responsible for planning, design, and day-to-day opera- tatives of these two airports and other airports. tions of airport terminal area and curbside roadways. The sec- ond user group includes city, regional, and state transportation planners who may not be familiar with airport roadway oper- Organization of the Guide ations. The third user group consists of airport consultants who are engaged to conduct planning, environmental, design, This Guide consists of six chapters and seven appendices and other projects on behalf of airport operators and other (see for Appendices B through G). Chapters 2 sponsors. Some users may have significant experience with air- through 6 are summarized below: ports or aviation, but little familiarity with traffic engineering or transportation planning principles. Other users may have Chapter 2, Framework for Analysis of Airport Roadways experience in traffic engineering and transportation plan- and Curbsides, describes the types of vehicles and roadways ning, but little knowledge of airport operations. This Guide typically found on airports and their unique operating char- is intended to assist both groups. acteristics. An overview is provided of (a) the hierarchy of For users unfamiliar with airports, the Guide describes the analytical methods--quick-estimation methods, macro- unique operating characteristics of airport terminal area road- scopic models, and microsimulation methods--presented ways and curbside areas, and how their operations differ from in Chapters 4 and 5 of this Guide--and (b) the concepts of those of urban streets and regional highways. The Guide pre- capacity and level of service, as presented in the 2000 High- sents methods for estimating existing and future airport road- way Capacity Manual (HCM). way requirements and alternative methods for analyzing Chapter 3, Estimating Airport Roadway Traffic Volumes, operations on airport roadways. describes the data required to analyze existing roadway traf- fic operations and ways to gather these data. Two alterna- Methodology tive methods for estimating future roadway requirements The Guide was prepared under the direction and guidance are presented, along with the challenges inherent in each of the project panel. The Guide reflects information gathered method.

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2 Chapter 4, Analyzing Airport Terminal Area Roadways, The Guide also contains seven appendices as follows: presents definitions of levels of service for airport termi- nal area roadway operations and a hierarchy of analytical Appendix A: Glossary of technical terms used in the Guide. methods for analyzing terminal area roadway operations, Appendix B: Bibliography of resource documents reviewed including low-speed weaving areas, capacities, and levels of for this research project. service. Appendix C: Summary of Terminal Area Roadway Traffic Chapter 5, Evaluating Airport Curbside Operations, pre- Volume Surveys conducted as part of this research. sents definitions of levels of service for airport curbside Appendix D: Summary of Curbside Roadway Traffic Char- roadway operations and a hierarchy of analytical methods acteristic Surveys conducted as part of this research. for quickly estimating curbside roadway capacities and lev- Appendix E: Summary of Focus Group Surveys of airline els of service, including a macroscopic model--the Quick passengers, airport landside operators, and the drivers of Analysis Tool for Airport Roadways (QATAR) developed commercial ground transportation vehicles serving air- during this research project. ports conducted as part of this research Chapter 6, Improving Airport Curbside and Terminal Area Appendix F: A Reproduction of Portions of TRB Circular Roadway Operations, presents examples of commonly 212 presenting the Critical Movement Analysis for signalized occurring airport curbside and roadway operational prob- intersections and the application of this analysis method lems, describes potential improvement measures, and Appendix G: Overview of QATAR Curbside Analysis overviews steps for analyzing and evaluating airport road- Methodology presenting the use and application of this way improvements. model as well as the spreadsheet model itself.