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4 baggage, disabilities, or passengers using a credit card to designated curbside areas that have been reserved or allo- pay the fare, may request service by specific vehicles or cated for their use. companies. Typically, pre-reserved taxicabs or taxicabs 9. Charter buses. Charter bus service (also referred to as tour requested specially are not allowed to wait at the curbside bus or cruise ship bus service) is door-to-door service pro- taxicab stand, but are assigned curb space at nearby or vided to a party (or group of passengers) that has made alternative locations. prior reservations or arrangements for the service. Char- 5. Prearranged limousines. Prearranged limousine ser- ter bus and van service is provided using over-the-road vice is exclusive door-to-door transportation provided coaches, full-size buses, minibuses, and vans seating more in luxury vehicles capable of transporting a single party than five passengers. Since charter bus service is sporadi- consisting of up to five customers (or more in stretch cally provided at most airports, curb space (or other limousines) regulated by a local or state agency. Gener- passenger pickup areas) is either not allocated for char- ally, limousine service is only available to customers ter buses or is shared with other transportation modes. who have made prior reservations (i.e., prearranged) Exceptions include airports serving large volumes of char- and are greeted (or picked up) by a driver having a way- ter or cruise ship passengers on a regular basis. Typically, bill or other evidence of the reservations. Some airport charter buses are required to wait in a remotely located operators allow limousine drivers to park at the curb- hold area until the arrival or assembly of the party being side and wait for customers; others require that the provided the service. drivers park in a parking lot or other designated zone 10. Scheduled buses. Scheduled buses provide shared-ride and accompany their customers from the terminal to service at established stops along a fixed route and oper- the parking area. ate on a scheduled basis. Typically, scheduled buses are 6. On-demand limousines or Town Cars. Privately operated operated by a public agency and make multiple stops on-demand door-to-door transportation is also provided along a designated route, but in some communities by exclusive luxury vehicles or "Town Cars" capable of express or semi-express service is operated by a private transporting up to five passengers and their baggage. These operator or public agency. The location and amount of services are similar to on-demand taxicab services, but are curb space allocated to scheduled buses depends on the provided in luxury vehicles with higher fares than those volume of such service and the policy of the airport charged for taxicab services. operator. 7. Door-to-door vans. Door-to-door or shared-ride van 11. Service and delivery vehicles. Service vehicles include a services are typically provided in vans capable of trans- wide range of trucks, vans, and semi-trailers, and other porting 8 to 10 passengers and their baggage. The service delivery vehicles used to transport goods, air cargo and is available on both an on-demand and prearranged basis. mail, contractors, and refuse to and from the airport. Passengers, who may share the vehicle with other passen- Generally, deliveries are made at designated loading docks gers, are provided door-to-door service between the air- or warehouses, not at the terminal curbside. However, the port and their homes, offices, or other locations, but may pickup and drop-off locations for airline-operated small encounter several (typically four or fewer) en route stops. package delivery services, which are provided by small Typically, door-to-door vans wait for deplaning passen- vans and light trucks, are at the terminal curbside at some gers at the curbside next to the baggage claim area. Similar airports. to taxicabs, vans may be required to wait in hold or stag- ing areas until they are dispatched to the curbside in Types of Airport Roadways response to customer demand. 8. Courtesy vehicles. Door-to-door courtesy vehicle service Although the airport passenger terminal building and sur- is shared-ride transportation provided by the operators of rounding area (the terminal area) is the most prominent hotels, motels, rental car companies, parking lot operators location on an airport, depending on the size, type, and distri- (both privately owned and airport operated parking lots), bution of airport land uses, less than half of all traffic on an air- and others solely for their customers. Typically, no fare is port may be associated with passengers and visitors proceeding charged because the cost of the transportation is consid- to/from the terminal area; the remaining traffic is generated by ered part of, or incidental to, the primary service being nonairline passenger activities, including employees. Regard- provided. Courtesy vehicle service is provided in shuttle less of airport size, the variety of land uses found on an airport vehicles, including 8- to 12-passenger vans (e.g., those requires a network of roadways to provide for inbound and operated by small motels), minibuses, and full-size buses outbound traffic, and the internal circulation of traffic between (e.g., those operated by rental car companies at large air- land uses. The roadway network consists of the types of road- ports). Typically, courtesy vehicles pick up customers at ways depicted on Figure 2-1.

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5 Figure 2-1. Hierarchy of airport roadway classifications. Access Roadways pick up and drop off airline passengers and their baggage. Curbside roadways typically consist of (1) an inner lane(s) For purposes of this Guide, airport access roadways are where vehicles stop or stand in a nose-to-tail manner while pas- defined as the roadways linking the regional highway and road- sengers board and alight, (2) an adjacent maneuvering lane, and way network with the airport terminal and other areas of the (3) one or more through or bypass lanes. Curb space is often airport that attract large volumes of airline passenger-generated allocated or reserved along the inner lane for specific vehicles traffic, such as parking and rental car facilities. Access road- or classes of vehicles (e.g., taxicabs, shuttle buses, or courtesy ways provide for the free flow of traffic between the regional vehicles), particularly at the curbside areas serving baggage network and the passenger terminal building or other major claim or passenger pickup. public facilities, and typically have a limited number of deci- As shown on Figure 2-2, depending on the configuration of sion points (i.e., entrances or exits). At large airports, access the adjacent terminal building, curbside roadways may include roadways are often limited-access roadways with both at-grade intersections and grade-separated interchanges. At smaller one, two, or more vertical levels and/or one, two, or more airports, access roadways often have at-grade intersections parallel roadways separated by raised medians (often called that may be signalized, stop-sign controlled, or have round- islands). At airports with dual-level curbsides, the upper level abouts (yield-sign controlled). curbside area is at the same level as airline passenger ticketing and check-in facilities inside the terminal and is intended for passenger drop-off. The lower level curbside area is at the same Curbside Roadways level as the baggage claim area and is reserved for passenger Curbside roadways are one-way roadways located immedi- pickup. At airports with multiple terminals where one of the ately in front of the terminal buildings where vehicles stop to parallel roadways serves as a bypass roadway, cut-through

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6 Figure 2-2. Typical airport curbside configuration. roadways may be provided to allow vehicles to circulate ways. Circulation roadways often provide a variety of paths for between the inner and outer parallel roadways (and curb- the movement of vehicles between the terminals, parking, and side roads). rental car facilities. Examples include return-to-terminal road- ways that allow motorists to proceed to parking after having dropped off airline passengers (or proceed from parking to the Circulation Roadways terminals) and allow courtesy or other vehicles to return to the Circulation roadways generally serve a lower volume of traf- terminal (e.g., after having dropped off enplaning airline pas- fic and are less direct than the roadways served by access road- sengers and returning to pick up deplaning passengers on a