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63 Potential Airport Policies to Enhance measures, which primarily affect curbside roadway operations, Roadway Operations but may also improve other roadway operations, are described in the remainder of this chapter. Promote Transit Airport operators generally encourage the use of public Typical Curbside Roadway Problems transportation by supporting the construction and operation of rail transit services and by promoting the use of rubber- Operational and physical problems can adversely affect the tired public transit services. Specific actions used by airport ability of airport curbside roadways to accommodate traffic operators to promote passenger (and employee) use of bus safely and efficiently. Typical problems include those listed in service include allocating the most convenient terminal curb this section. space for bus stops, installing signs indicating bus schedules and expected waiting times, installing transit ticket vending Insufficient Curbside Roadway Capacity machines at visible locations in the terminal building, provid- ing employees with a guaranteed ride home in the event of Insufficient curbside roadway capacity exists when curbside emergencies, and subsidizing selected modes to reduce the requirements (lengths) are greater than 1.3 times the usable cost to passengers. curbside length and/or the through lanes on a curbside roadway operate at LOS C or worse. When curbside demand exceeds available capacity, motorists experience significant Encourage Remote Terminals delays and queues, as evidenced by high levels of double and with Express Bus Service triple parking throughout the entire curbside, which, in turn, An example of a remote terminal is an intercept parking reduces the capacity and travel speeds of the curbside roadway lot that provides scheduled, express bus service for airport through lanes. As noted previously, curbside roadways must passengers and employees to and from the airport terminal. provide both adequate curbside length (stopping space) as well By encouraging the use of efficient access modes, these ter- as adequate throughput capacities. Any deficiencies in one area minals reduce the number of vehicle trips on airport road- will adversely affect the other. Factors that contribute to a lack ways. The operators of the airports serving Boston and Los of curbside roadway capacity are described in the following Angeles subsidize remote terminals and express bus services paragraphs. (e.g., the Logan Express and Los Angeles Flyaway services) and similar privately operated services are provided at Imbalances in Demand Kennedy, Newark Liberty, and San Francisco International Airports and LaGuardia Airport. (See Appendix B for addi- Imbalances in curbside demand occur when the total length tional information.) of curbside space available is sufficient to accommodate curb- side demand, but most of the demand occurs at, and overloads the capacity of, one segment of the total curbside area. For Encourage Consolidated Rental Car Buses example, if one or more airlines on one concourse serve most or Courtesy Shuttles of the peak-hour airline passenger activity, then curbside traf- Consolidated rental car shuttle buses used at airports that fic will be concentrated at the doors leading to the portions of have consolidated rental car centers replace the courtesy vehi- the terminal building occupied by these airlines, leaving the cles operated by individual rental car companies and thereby remainder of the curbside areas empty or underutilized. Gen- reduce the number of vehicle trips on airport roadways. The erally, it is not feasible to relocate the assigned airline ticket consolidated rental car shuttle buses can be operated by a counter or baggage claim area locations solely to balance curb- rental car industry consortium or by the airport operator side demand. (using a third-party contractor) on behalf of the rental car companies. Some airport operators have successfully encour- Insufficient Number of Travel Lanes aged hotels/motels to operate consolidated courtesy vehicles or shuttle buses. A curbside roadway that does not provide sufficient capac- ity to accommodate existing or future requirements at LOS C or better typically has an insufficient number of travel lanes. Manage and Control Commercial Generally, curbside roadways with four lanes or more provide Vehicle Operations sufficient capacity because two travel lanes remain available Numerous measures are available to manage and control even when double parking occurs. Congestion and delays may commercial ground transportation vehicle operations. These occur frequently on curbside roadways having three lanes or