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19 Table 3-1. Examples of safety policies that may affect the freight system. Federal State Local/Regional Truck HOS rules Highway speed limits A few local railroad Railroad HOS rules Enforcement of FMCSA truck speed limits Aviation HOS rules rules Parking and truck Interstate speed limits Restrictions on locomotive horns access restrictions Truck speed governor rules Truck electronic onboard recorder rules Other FMCSA rules for drivers and carriers NHTSA rules for trucks FRA inspection of tracks and vehicles FAA rules for aircraft design; inspection of aircraft Hazmat rules Coast Guard rules for barges and barge operations freight-terminal access to authorized persons. Examples include opment, and property taxes can all have important indirect the driver background checks required under the PATRIOT effects on the freight system. Policy choices in these areas Act, the Transportation Worker Identification Credential can, for example, affect locations of warehouses and truck (TWIC) program for access to secure areas of port facilities and and rail terminals. Local governments make many other types vessels, and rules for fingerprinting aliens exiting the United of decisions regarding the development and use of land with States on cargo planes and ships. Other Federal rules focus on potential freight impacts (e.g., requirements for noise barri- the security of cargo (e.g., requirements for screening cargo ers, truck parking, truck routing, truck idling, street geomet- carried on passenger planes). rics, and signalization). In a few cases, Federal policies and Some state and local government agencies have imple- programs can influence land use patterns in ways that affect mented freight access restrictions, primarily for security freight. For example, EPA's Brownfields Program has led to purposes. For example, trucks were prohibited from using redevelopment of land in freight-intensive areas. Table 3-3 some New York City tunnels following 9/11. The District of lists examples of land use policies that may affect the freight Columbia adopted a ban on railroad hazmat shipments system. through the city center, although the rule was blocked by a court decision. Table 3-2 lists examples of security policies Environmental Policy that may affect the freight system. As with safety, environmental policy is a broad area in which all three levels of government have an active role. The most Land Use Policy significant environmental policies affecting freight concern Land use policy occurs almost exclusively at the state and air quality. EPA sets national engine emission standards for local level. States (in some cases) set policies that affect local new trucks, locomotives, marine vessels, and aircraft and reg- land use planning practices, and states may also be involved in ulates transportation fuels to achieve emission reductions. actions that affect state land (e.g., open space protection) and (The California Air Resources Board [CARB] has similar economic development. Most land use decisions are made at authority in California.) These policies are closely related the local level. Policies regarding zoning, planning, redevel- to energy and climate change policies. EPA also establishes Table 3-2. Examples of security policies that may affect the freight system. Federal State Local/Regional TWIC Some routing and Some routing and Truck driver background checks infrastructure access infrastructure access U.S. exit fingerprinting rules restrictions restrictions MARAD foreign crew ID requirements TSA airport security protocol Chemical facility anti-terrorism standards Screening cargo on passenger aircraft Screening of import containers Customs rules/programs (FAST, CTPAT)