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20 Table 3-3. Examples of land use policies that may affect the freight system. Federal State Local/Regional Brownfields programs Land use planning Zoning requirements Land use planning Redevelopment Property taxes Truck parking Truck routing ambient air quality standards and related air quality plan- currently provide incentives to improve freight fuel efficiency ning rules, which can affect transportation planning and in- through public recognition and funding for improvements frastructure investment. Other Federal environmental regu- (e.g., truck stop electrification). EPA may soon establish heavy- lations that may affect the freight system include those related duty truck fuel efficiency standards. to water quality, toxic substances, and solid waste. Govern- Both the Federal government and some states have set stan- ment agencies at all levels may be involved in decisions on the dards for use of renewable fuels, including blending ethanol disposal of harbor dredging spoils, which directly affect ports. with gasoline and use of biodiesel. California has adopted a States (and, in some cases, regional agencies) develop and low-carbon-fuel standard that mandates a reduction in fuel implement air quality plans. Local governments can enact carbon-intensity; several other states are considering similar restrictions on freight operations (primarily trucks) in the policies. Congress is debating comprehensive climate change name of environmental quality. For example, many states legislation that would establish a national GHG cap and trade and cities have adopted regulations on truck (and occasion- program covering transportation fuels, following the lead of ally locomotive) idling. Local governments can set regula- three different state consortia: the Western Climate Initia- tions on noise or the visual impacts of freight facilities (e.g., tive (WCI), the Midwest GHG Reduction Accord (MGGRA), lighting). Some port authorities (particularly the Ports of and the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) in the Los Angeles and Long Beach) are pursuing various environ- Northeast. California is pursuing several rules to reduce GHGs mental policies, including vessel speed limits, requirements from freight movement, including requirements for fuel effi- for vessels to use shore power, clean fuels rules, and port truck ciency equipment on trucks. Both state and local government emissions limits. Table 3-4 lists examples of environmental help to promote alternative fueling infrastructure and vehicles, policies that may affect the freight system. sometimes affecting freight. Concern about climate change is also prompting some state and local governments to enact policies and programs to reduce freight GHG emissions by Energy and Climate Change Policy improving system efficiency. Table 3-5 lists examples of energy Historically, energy policy was almost exclusively the pre- and climate change policies that may affect the freight system. serve of Federal policymakers. Recent concern about global climate change has recast many energy policy issues in terms Infrastructure Operations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction. This is a policy and Maintenance Policy category where states (and sometimes local governments) have pursued policies that promote alternative energy sources States are primarily responsible for highway operations and reduce GHG emissions ahead of Federal action. Federal and maintenance decisions. The principal policy decisions programs, such as the EPA's SmartWay Transport Partnership, relate to spending levels, but include policies such as seasonal Table 3-4. Examples of environmental policies that may affect the freight system. Federal State Local/Regional Emission standards Plan and enact air quality Restrictions on truck idling Fuel standards programs Airport noise restrictions Air quality standards and planning CA in-use truck standards Restrictions on visual impacts requirements CA MOU on Tier 2 locomotives (e.g., lighting) CMAQ Program CA MOU on locomotive idling Ocean vessel speed reduction Management of dredging spoils Drayage truck rules at ports Vessel shore power Water pollutant discharge rules for requirements vessels Port drayage truck rules Oil spill prevention rules (e.g., double Port fuels rules hulls)